تأثیر تنش شوری روی برخی از ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی ژنوتیپ‌های "برگ موجی" و "برگ صاف" آلترنانترا (Alternanthera repens)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش باهدف بررسی اثرات تنش شوری روی برخی از ویژگی‌های مرفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه آلترنانترا به‌صورت گلخانه‌ای انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار انجام گرفت. گیاهان به‌روش تقسیم بوته ازدیاد و در شرایط هیدروپونیک کشت شدند. پس از استقرار گیاهان، تیمار شوری شامل چهار سطح صفر (شاهد)، 30، 60 و 90 میلی‌مولار کلریدسدیم به‌مدت 12 هفته بر روی دو ژنوتیپ "برگ موجی" و "برگ صاف" اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد اثر ژنوتیپ و شوری بر تمام ویژگی‌ها معنی‌دار بود. در شوری 90 میلی‌مولار در مقایسه با شاهد طول گیاه در ژنوتیپ "برگ موجی" به 50 درصد و در ژنوتیپ "برگ صاف" به 28 درصد رسید. با افزایش تنش شوری وزن‌تر و خشک شاخساره و ریشه، محتوای نسبی آب برگ نیز کاهش نشان دادند. میزان پرولین، نشت الکترولیت و آنتوسیانین با افزایش تنش شوری افزایش پیدا کردند. در تیمار شوری 90 میلی‌مولار در مقایسه با شاهد در ژنوتیپ‌های "برگ موجی" و "برگ صاف" به‌ترتیب محتوای نسبی آب برگ 15/18 و 95/31 درصد کاهش، کلروفیل کل 5/57 و 5/78 درصد کاهش، نشت الکترولیت 5/407 و 4/670 درصد افزایش، پرولین 1/385 و 5/297 درصد افزایش و آنتوسیانین 4/382 و 8/177 درصد افزایش نشان دادند. براساس نتایج ژنوتیپ "برگ موجی" مقاوم‌تر بود و توانست تا شوری 90 میلی‌مولار را تحمل کند و به بقای خود ادامه دهد، درحالی‌که ژنوتیپ " برگ صاف" شوری‌ بیشتر از 60 میلی‌مولار را تحمل نکرد و گیاهان تیمار شده با شوری 90 میلی‌مولار در این ژنوتیپ دچار آسیب شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Salinity Stress on some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Alternanthera repens Genotypes: "Entire Leaf "and "Undulate Leaf"

نویسندگان [English]

  • Daryoush Pourghasemi 1
  • Merangiz Chehrazi 2
  • Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad 3
1 MSc Student, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of salinity on some morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Alternanthera repens, this project was carried out as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in a greenhouse. Two Alternanthera genotypes, "Undulate leaf" and "Entire leaf" were propagated through plant division, and grown hydroponically. After establishment of the plants, they were treated with 0 (control), 30, 60 and 90mM NaCl for 12 weeks. Results showed that effects of genotype and salinity were significant on all measured traits. Compared to the controls, plants height were reduced in plants grown under 90mM NaCl to 50 and 28 percent, in "Undulate leaf" and "Entire leaf", respectively. As salinity level increased, shoot fresh and dry weight and relative water content (RWC) decreased. Further, as salinity level increased, proline content, electrolyte leakage (EL) and anthocyanin content increased. Compared to the controls, plants grown under 90 mM NaCl showed 18.15 and 31.95 percent less RWC, 57.5 and 78.5 percent less chlorophyll, 407.5 and 670.4 percent more EL, and 382.4 and 177.8 more anthocyanin, in "Undulate leaf" and "Entire leaf", respectively. According to the results, "Undulate leaf" was more resistant to salinity compared to "Entire leaf". At 90 mM NaCl salinity, "Undulate leaf" could survive, while, "Entire leaf" was completely injured.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • NaCl
  • Anthocyanin
  • Proline
  • Relative water content
  • Chlorophyll

شیری، م.، صفرنژاد، ع. و حمیدی، ح. 1388. بررسی خصوصیات مرفولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه آنغوزه (Ferula assafoetida) در برابر تنش شوری. دوفصلنامه علمی- پژوهشی تحقیقات ژنتیک و اصلاح گیاهان مرتعی و جنگلی ایران، 17 (1): 38-49.

قاسمی قهساره، م. و کافی، م.1390. گل‌کاری علمی و عملی. جلد اول. انتشارات مؤلف. اصفهان.310 صفحه.

Agastian, P., Kingsley, S. J. and Vivekanandan, M. 2000. Effect of salinity on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics in mulberry genotypes. Photosynthetica, 38 (2): 287-290.

Ahmed, A. M., Heikal, M. M. and Shaddad, M. A. 1978. Photosynthetic activity, pigment content and growth of Helianthus annus and Linum usitatissiumm plant as influenced by salinization treatment. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science. Assiut University, 7: 48-56.

Ali, Y., Aslam, Z., Ashraf, M. Y. and Tahir G. R. 2004. Effect of salinity on chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, yield and yield components of rice genotypes grown under saline environment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 1 (3): 221-225.

Ashraf, M. and Foold, M. R. 2007. Roles of glycinbetaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59: 206-216.

Ashraf, M. Y. and Bhatti, A. S. 2000. Effect of salinity on growth and chlorophyll content of Rice. Pakistan Journal of Sciences Research, 43 (2): 130-131.

Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P. and Teare, I. D. 1973. Rapid determination of proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39: 205-207.

Dorgham, E. A. 1991. Effect of water tress, irradiation and nitrogen fertilization on grain filling, yield and quality of certain wheat cultivars. PhD Thesis, Ain Shams University of Cairo, Egypt. 1-136.

Greenway, H. and Munns, R. 1980. Mechanism of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 31: 149-190.

Hagemann, M. and Erdmann, N. 1997. Environmental stresses. In: Rai, A. K. (Ed), Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Metabolism and Environmental Biotechnology. Springer, Heidelberg Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 156-221.

Hernandes, J. A., Olmos, E., Corpas, F. J., Sevilla, F. and Del Rio, L.A. 1995. Salt- induced oxidative stress in chloroplasts of pea plants. Plant Science, 105: 151-167.

Hoagland, D. R. and Arnon, D. I. 1950. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular. California Agricultural Experiment Station, 347.

Jamil, M., Lee, D. B., Jung, K. Y., Ashraf, M., Lee, S. C. and Rha, E. S. 2006. Effect of salt (NaCl) stress on germination and early seedling growth of four vegetables species. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 7 (2): 273-282.

Jampeetong, A. and Brix, H. 2009. Effect of NaCl salinity on growth, morphology, photosynthesis and proline accumulation of Salvia natans. Aquatic Botany, 91: 181-186.

Jones, M. M. and Turner. N. C. 1978. Osmotic adjustment in leaves of Sorghum in response to water deficits. Plant Physiology, 61: 122-126.

Kaliamoorthy, S. and Rao, A. S. 1994. Effect of salinity on anthocyanin accumulation in the root of maize. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 37: 169-170.

Kaya, C., Higges, D. and Kirnak, H. 2001. The effects of high salinity (NaCl) and supplementary phosphorus and potassium on physiology and nutrition development of spinach. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27 (3-4): 47-59.

Kaya, C., Kirank, H., Higgs, D. and Saltali, K. 2002. Supplementary calcium enhances plant growth and fruit yield in strawberry cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. Scientia Horticulturae, 93: 65-74.

Kaya, M. D., Okçu, G., Atak, M., Çıkılı, Y. and Kolsarıcı, Ö. 2006. Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 24 (4): 291-295.

Kennedy, B. F. and De Fillippis, L. F. 1999. Physiological and oxidative response to NaCl of the salt tolerant Grevillea ilicifolia and the salt sensitive Grevillea arenaria. Journal of plant physiology, 155: 746-754.

Kumar, R., Goyal, V. and Kuhad, M. S. 2005. Influence of fertility- salinity interactions on growth, water status and yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 10: 139-144.

Lichtenthaler, H. K. 1987. Chlorophylls and cartenoides: pigments of photosynthetic bio-membranes. In: Methods in Enzymol. (eds. Colowick, S. P. and Kaplan, N. O.). Academic press. New York, 48: 350-382.

Munns, R. and Jams, R. A. 2003. Screening method for salinity tolerance: a case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant Soil, 253: 201-218.

Murray, Y. 1994. Ca2+ regulation of outward rectifying K+ channel in the plasma membrane of tobacco cultured cells in suspension: a role of the K+ channel in mitigation of salt-stress effects by external Ca+. Plant Cell Physiology, 39: 1039-1044.

Ritchie, S. W. and Hanson, A. D. 1990. Leaf water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science, 30: 105-111.

Ryyppo, A., Repo, T. and Vapaavuori, E. 1998. Development of freezing tolerance in roots and shoots of Scots pine seedlings at non-freezing temperatures. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28: 557-565.  

Sibol, J. V., Cabot, C., Poschenrieder, C. and Barcelo, J. 2003. Efficient leaf ion partitioning, an overriding condition for abscisic acid-controlled stomatal and leaf growth responses to NaCl salinization in two legumes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54 (390): 2111-2119.

Lawlor, D. W. 2002. Limitation to photosynthesis in water-stressed leaves: Stomata versus metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany, 89: 871-885.

Tuna, A. L., Kaya, C., Ashraf, M., Altunlu, H., Yokas, I. and Yagmur, B. 2007. The effects of calcium sulphate on growth, membrane stability and nutrient uptake of tomato plants grown under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59: 173-178.

Vendruscolo, E. C. G., Schuster, I., Pilegg, M., Scapim, C. A., Molinari, H. B. C., Marur, C. J. and Vieira, L. G. E. 2007. Stress-induced synthesis of proline confers tolerance to water deficit in transgenic wheat. Journal of Plant Physiology, 164 (10): 1367-1376.

Wagner, G. J. 1979. Content and vacuole/extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids and anthocyanin in protoplasts. Plant Physiology, 64: 88-93.

Yamasaki, S. and Dillenburg, L. C. 1999. Measurements of leaf relative water content in Araucaria angustifolia. Revista Brasilia de Fisiologia Vegetal, 11: 69-75.