بررسی ترکیبات فنلی تراوش شده از ریزقلمه‌های تک‌گره گردو در محیط‌کشت مایع DKW

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 استاد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی مقادیر برخی ترکیبات فنلی تراوش یافته از ریزقلمه‌های تک‌گره گردو به محیط‌کشت مایع (DKW) آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های خرد‌شده با سه فاکتور شامل رقم در دو سطح (جمال و چندلر) و زمان تهیه ریزقلمه در چهار سطح (15 و 31 اردیبهشت، 15 تیر و 15 شهریور‌ماه) و زمان ارزیابی محیط‌کشت مایع در سه سطح (24،72 و 144 ساعت پس از کشت) در سه تکرار انجام شد. هم‌چنین در آزمایشی مستقل، ترکیبات فنلی تراوش شده به محیط‌کشت مایع در 24، 72 و 144 ساعت پس از کشت و ترکیب خالص ژوگلون به محیط‌کشت جامد اضافه شدند. نتایج نشان داد از لحاظ 14 ترکیب فنلی در شاخساره و محیط‌کشت شامل الاژیک‌ اسید، وانیلیک اسید، کوماریک اسید، کلروژنیک اسید، کافئیک اسید، جینتیسک اسید، فرولیک اسید، سیرینژیک اسید، سینامیک اسید، کاتچین، روتین و میریستین، ژوگلان و 1و4- نفتوکوئینون تفاوت معنی‌داری بین ارقام مشاهده نشد، امّا زمان تهیه ریزقلمه و زمان ارزیابی محیط‌کشت مایع تفاوت معنی‌داری نشان دادند. ترکیبات ژوگلان، الاژیک اسید، میریستین و وانیلیک اسید در مقادیر بالاتری نسبت به سایر ترکیبات فنلی در شاخساره سال جاری و ترکیبات ژوگلون، الاژیک اسید و میریستین بیش‌ترین تراوش را در محیط‌کشت مایع داشتند. اضافه کردن ترکیبات فنلی تراوش شده بعد از 144 ساعت در محیط‌کشت جامد ضعیف‌ترین رشد و کم‌ترین میزان تغییر وزن ریزقلمه را ایجاد کرد که این کاهش اختلاف معنی‌داری با دیگر تیمارها داشت. به‌طور‌کلی، احتمالاً سه ترکیب ژوگلون، الاژیک اسید و میریستین از موانع اصلی در استقرار کاملاً موفق ریزقلمه‌های دو رقم جمال و چندلر هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Phenolic Compounds Exuded from Single Node Microcuttings of Walnut into Liquid Culture Medium DKW

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Ehteshamnia 1
  • Mansour Gholami 2
1 PhD Student, Department of Horticulture Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticulture Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the amounts of some phenolic compounds exuded from single node walnut explants in liquid medium (DKW), this experiment was performed in the form of a split units in time experiment based on split block design with three factors including cultivar in two walnut cultivars namely Chandler and Jamal, time of sampling in four levels  including May 5 th, May 21st, July 5th and September 5th and the time of liquid culture assessment in three levels (24, 72 and 144 hours after the culture) using HPLC with three replicates. In independent experiment, phenolic compounds exuded in liquid medium 24, 72 and 144h after the culture and juglone were added to solid medium. The results showed that in terms of the 14 phenolic compounds (Ellagic, Vanillic, Coumaric, Chlorogenic, Caffeic, Gentistic Ferulic Syringic Cinamic acid, Catechin, Rutin and Myricetin, Juglone and 1,4 Naphthoquinone) in shoots and medium the cultivars were not significantly different but the time of sampling and liquid culture assessment showed significant differences between the cultivars. The results showed that Juglone, Myricetin, Ellagic and Vanillic acid were present in the current year shoots in higher amounts than other phenolic compounds and Juglone, Ellagic acid and Myricetin had the highest leakage in the culture medium. Adding exuded phenolic compounds after 144h in the solid medium had the lowest growth and fresh weight change of microcutting and significant difference with other treatments.The over all results of this study showed that Juglone, Ellagic acid and Myricetin are possibly the main obstacles to the fully succeed microcuttings establishment of two Jamal and Chandler cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Juglone
  • Jamal
  • Chandler
  • Browning

چنیانی، م.، ابراهیم‌زاده، ح.، مسعودی‌نژاد، ع. و وحدتی، ک. 1390. مطالعه فیزیولوژیکی، بیوشیمیایی و ژنومیکی برخی آنزیم­های مسیر بیوسنتزی ترکیبات فنلی و اثر آن‌ها در ریشه­زایی برخی ارقام گردو. رساله دکتری. دانشگاه تهران. 335 صفحه.

یاری، م. ب.، غـــلامی، م. و اثنــی‌عشـــری، م. 1390. اثر زمان نمونه‌گیری، نوع و آرایش کشت ریزنمونه‌ها و نوع آنتی‌اکسیدان بر استقرار و رشد ریزنمونه­های گردوی ایرانی در شرایط درون‌شیشه­ای. نشریه علوم باغبانی ایران، 42 (2): 149-141.

Amaral, J. S., Seabra, R. M., Andrade, P. B., Valenta˜o, P., Pereira, J. A. and Ferreres, F. 2004. Phenolic profile in the quality control of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves. Journal of Food Chemistry, 88: 373-379.

Amaral, J. S., Valentao, P., Andrade, P. B., Martins, R. C. and Seabra, R. M. 2008. Do cultivar, geographical location and crop season influence phenolic profile of walnut leaves? Molecules, 13: 1321-1332.

Amiot, M. J., Tacchini, M., Aubert, S. and Nicolas, J. 1992. Phenolic composition and browning susceptibility of various apple cultivars at maturity. Journal of Food Science, 57: 958-962.

Barz, W., Koester, J., Weltring, K. M. and Strack, D. 1985. Recent advances in the metabolism and degradation of phenolic compounds in plants and animals, in: Van Sumere, C. V., Lea, P. J. (Eds.), The Biochemistry of Plant Phenolics. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 307-347.

Biedermann, I. E. C. 1987. Factors affecting establishment and development of Magnolia hybrids in vitro. Acta Horticulturae, 212: 625-629.

Borazjani, A., Graves, C. H. and Hedin, P. A. 1985. Occurrence of juglone in various tissues of pecan and related species. Phytopathology, 75: 1419-1421.

Caboni, E., Tonelli, M. G., Lauri, P., Iacouacci, P., Kevers, C., Damiano, C. and Gaspar, Th. 1997. Biochemical aspects of almond microcuttings related to in vitro rooting ability. Biologia Plantarum, 39 (1): 91-97.

Chavan, S. S., Ranade, S. S., Deore, A. C., Deshpande, R. S. and Dhonukshe, B. L., 2000. Cloning of Alphonso mango through vegetative explants. Annals Plant Physiology, 14 (2): 178-181.

Cheng, G. W. W. and Crisosto, C. H. 1995. Browning potential, phenolic composition, and polyphenoloxidase activity of buffer extracts of peach and nectarine skin tissue. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 120: 835-838.

Cheniany, M., Ebrahimzadeh, H., Vahdati, K., Preece, J. E., Masoudinejad, A. and Mirmasoumi, M. 2012. Content of different groups of phenolic compounds in microshoots of Juglans regia cultivars and studies on antioxidant activity. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35 (2): 443-450.

Claudot, A. C., Drouet, A. and Jay-Allemand, C. 1992. Tissue distribution of phenolic compounds in annual shoots from adult and rejuvenated walnut trees. Plant Physiology Chemistry, 30: 61-68.

Claudot, A. C., Ernst, D., Sandermann, H. and Drouet, A. 1997. Chalcone synthase activity and polyphenolic compounds of shoot tissues from adult andrejuvenetad walnut trees. Planta, 203: 275-282.

Cline, S. and Neely, D. 1984. Relationship between juvenile-leaf resistance to anthracnose and the presence of juglone and hydrojuglone glucoside in black walnut. Phytopathology, 74 (2): 185-188.

Colaric, M., Veberic, R., Solar, A., Hudina, M. and Stampar, F. 2005. Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53 (16): 6390-6396.

Cosmulescu, S., Trandafir, I., Achim, G., Botu, M., Baciu, A. and Gruia, M. 2010. Phenolics of green husk in mature walnut fruits. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 38 (1): 53-56.

Cosmulescu, S. N. and Trandafir, I. 2011. Seasonal variation of total phenols in leaves of walnut (Juglans regia L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5 (19): 4938-4942.

De Klerk, G. J., Van Der Krieken, W. and De Jong, J. C. 1999. The formation of adventitious roots: newconcepts, new possibilities. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant, 35: 189-199.

Dixon, R. A. and Paiva, N. L. 1995. Stress induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Journal of Plant Cell Reports, 7: 1085-1097.

Dobránszki, J. and Teixeira, J. A. 2010. Micropropagation of apple. Biotechnology Advances, 28: 462-488.

Dobránszki, J., Abdul-Kader, A., Magyar-Tábori, K., Jámbor-Benczúr, E., Bubán, T. and Szalai, J. 2000a. In vitro shoot multiplication of apple: comparative response of three rootstocks to cytokinins and auxin. Journal of Horticultural Science, 6: 36-39.

Dobránszki, J., Abdul-Kader, A., Magyar-Tábori, K., Jámbor-Benczúr, E., Bubán, T. and Szalai, J. 2000b. Single and dual effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of different apple scions. Journal of Horticultural Science, 6: 76-78.

Dobránszki, J., Magyar-Tábori, K., Jámbor-Benczúr, E., Lazányi, J., Bubán, T. and Szalai, J. 2000c. Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their post-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring. Journal of Horticultural Science, 6: 84-87.

Driver, J. A. and Kuniyuki, A. H. 1984. In vitro propagation of Paradox walnut Juglans hindsii × Juglans regia rootstock. Journal of Horticultural Science, 19: 507-509.

Duroux, L., Fontaine, F., Breton, Ch., Charpentier, J. P., Doumas, P. and Jay-Allemand, Ch. 1997. Histological and biochemical characterization of adventitious root formation in walnut cotyledonsfragments. In: Altman, A., Warsel, T. (Eds.) Biology of root formation and development. PlenumPress. New York. 75-84.

Ehsanpour, A. and Amini, F. 2001. Plant cell and tissue culture. JDM Press, 181p.

Ercisli, S., Esitken, A., Turkkal, C. and Orhan, E. 2005. The allelopathic effects of juglone and walnut leaf extractson yield, growth, chemical and PNE compositions of strawberry cv. Fern. Plant, Soil and Environment, 51 (6): 283-287.

Faivre-Rampant, O., Charpentier, J. P., Kevers, C., Dommes, J., Van Onckelen, H., Jay-Allemand, C. and Gaspar, T. 2002. Cuttings of the non-rooting rac tobacco mutant overaccumulate phenolic compounds. Funct. Plant Biology, 29: 63-71.

Girzu, M. Carnat, A. Privat, A. M. Fiaplip, J. Carnat, A. P. and Lamaison, J. L. 1998. Sedative effect of walnut leaf extract and juglone, an isolated constituent. Pharmaceutical Biology, 36 (4): 280-286.

Goupy, P., Amiot, M. J., Richard-Forget, F., Duprat, F., Aubert, S. and Nicolas, J. 1995. Enzymatic browning of model solutions and apple extracts by apple polyphenoloxidase. Journal of Food Science, 60: 497-501.

Gueldner, R. C., Yates, I. E., Reilly, C. C., Wood, B. W. and Smith, M. T. 1994. Concentrations of a hydrojuglone glucoside in developing pecan leaves in relation to scab susceptibility. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119: 498-504.

Hedin, P. A., Langhans, V. E. and Graves, C. H. 1979. Identification of juglone in pecan asa possible factor of resistance to Fusicladium effusum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 27 (1): 92-94.

Hejl, A., Einhellig, F. A. and Rasmussen, J. A. 1993. Effects of juglone on growth, photosynthesis and respiration. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19: 559-568.

Huang, L. C., Lee, Y. L., Huang, B. L., Kuo, C. I. and Shaw, J. F. 2002. High polyphenoloxidase activity and low titrable acidity in browning of bamboo tissue culture. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant, 38 (4): 355-365.

Jakopic, J., Colaric, M., Veberic, R., Hudina, M., Solar, A. and Stampar, F. 2007. How much do cultivar and preparation time influence on phenolicscontent in walnut liqueur? Journal of Food Chemistry, 104 (1): 100-105.

Jay-Allemand, C. and Drouet, A. 1989. Polyphenole und Enzyme als biochemische Marker der VerjuÈ ngung bei Walnuss. Erwerb-sobstbau, 31: 63-69.

Jay-Allemand, C., Charpentier, J. P., Bruant, B., Burtin, P., Fady, B. and Lefevre, F. 2001. Genetic of phenolic compounds in walnut: qualitative and quantitative variations among cultivars. Acta Horticulturae, 544: 73-81.

Jay-Allemand, C., Drouet, A., Ouaras, A. and Cornu, D. 1989. Polyphenolic and enzymatic characterization of ageing and rejuvenation of walnut trees (Juglans nigra × Juglans regia): relationship to growth. Annals of Forest Science, 46 Supplement, 190-193.

Jiang, Y. M., Liu, S. X., Zhang, D. L., Chang, F. and Li, Y. B. 1995. Studies on antibrowning of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) fruit. Tropical Agriculture, 72: 254-256.

Kocacaliskan, I. and Terzi, I. 2001. Allelopathic effects of walnut leaf extracts and juglone on seedgermination and seedling growth. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 76: 436-440.

Langhans, V. E., Hedin, P. A. and Graves, C. H. 1978. Fungitoxic chemicals in pecan tissue. Plant Disease Report, 62: 894-898.

Lee, K. C. and Campbell, R. W. 1969.  Nature and occurrence of juglone in Juglans nigra L. Journal of Horticultural Science, 4: 297-298.

Mahoney, N., Molyneux, R. J. and Campbell, B. C. 2000. Regulation of aflatoxin production by naphthoquinones of walnut (Juglans regia). Journal of Agricultural andFood Chemistry, 48: 4418-4421.

McGranahan, G. and Leslie, C. A. 1987. In vitro propagation of mature Persian walnut cultivars. Journal of Horticultural Science, 23 (1): 220.

Nag, S., Saha, K. and Choudhri, M. A. 2001. Role of auxin and polyamines in adventitious rootformation in relation to changes in compounds involved in rooting. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 20: 182-194.

Quaddoury, A. and Amssa, M. 2004. Effect of exogenous indole butyric acid on root formation and peroxidase and indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activities and phenolic contents in date Palm offshoots. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 45: 127-131.

Radix, P., Bastien, C., Jay-Allemand, C., Charlot, G. and Siegle-Murandi, F. 1998.The influence of soil nature on polyphenols in walnut tissues. A possible explanation of differences in the expression of walnut blight. Agronomie, 18 (10): 627-637.

Radix, P., Siglemurandi, F. and Charlot, G. 1994. Walnut blight-development of fruit infection in 2 orchards, Crop Protection, 13 (8): 629-631.

Rietvel, W. J. 1982. The significance of allelopathy in black walnut cultural systems. Northern Nut Growers Association. Annual Reports, 72: 117-134.

Rietvel, W. J. 1983. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 9: 295-308.

Robards, K., Prenzler, P. D., Tucker, G., Swatsitang, P. and Glover, W. 1999. Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits. Journal of Food Chemistry, 66: 401-436.

Ruechmann, S., Leser, C., Bannert, M. and Treutter, D. 2002. Relationship between growth, secondary metabolism, and resistance of apple. Plant Biology, 4 (2): 137-143.

Solar, A., Colarič, M., Usenik, V. and Stampar, F. 2006. Seasonal variations of selected flavonoids, phenolic acids and quinones in annual shoots of common walnut (Juglans regia L.). Plant Science, 170 (3): 453-461.

Stampar, F. Solar, A., Hudina, M., Veberic, R. and Colaric, M. 2006. Traditionalwalnut liquor-cocktail of phenolics. Journal of Food Chemistry, 95 (4): 627-631.

Tabiyeh, D. T., Bernard, F. and Shacker, H. 2006. Investigation of glutathione, salicylicacid and GA3 on browning in Pistacia vera shoot tips cultures. Acta Horticulturae, 726: 201-204.

Teixeria, J. B., Sondahl, M. R. and Kirby, E. G. 1994. Somatic embryogenesis from immature inflorescences of oil palm. Journal of Plant Cell Report, 13: 247-50.

Treutter, D. 2001. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and its regulation in apple. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 34: 71-89.

Usenik, V., Osterc, G., Mikulicˇ-Petkovsˇek, M., Trobec, M., Vebericˇ, R., Colaricˇ, M., Solar, A. and Štampar, F. 2004. The involvement of phenolic compounds in the metabolism of fruit trees, in: Razprave, IV, razreda, SAZU, Ljubljana, 187-204.

Wang, Q., Tang, H., Quan, Y. and Zhou, G. 1994. Phenol induced browning and establishment of shoottip explants of Fuji apple and Jinhua pear cultured In vitro. Journal of HortScience, 69: 833-839.

Wichtl, M. and Anton, R. 1999. Plantes therapeutiques. Paris: Tec. & Doc, 291-293.

Wilson, P. J. and van Staden, J. 1990. Rizocaline, rooting co-factors, and the concept of promoters and inhibitors of adventitious rooting-a review. Annals of Botany, 66: 479-490.

Yang, H., Zhou, C. W. U. F. and Cheng, J. 2010. Effect of nitric oxide on browning and lignifications of peeled bamboo shoots. Journal of Postharvest Biology and Technology, 57: 72-76.