عنوان مقاله [English]
The correct management of kiwi fruit tree nutrition can affect an increase in postharvest life of kiwi fruit. At this research, based on randomized complete block design with 10 fertilization treatments, the effect of different stages of foliar spraying CaCl2 (August to October) and different amounts of urea, triple superphophate and potassium sulphate on kiwi fruits in a kiwi orchard located at Astaneh Ashrafieh, Guilan Province, Iran, was investigated. The traits including fresh and dry weight, acidity, percent of dry matter, the brix and firmness of fruit, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium of fruit in harvesting time; and fruits firmness and brix in 60 and 120 days after keeping fruits in storage (temperature 0 ±0.5ºC and 90-95% moisture) were measured. Results showed that the dry matter percent in treatments of five stages foliar spraying calcium was significantly more than control. The brix in the control treatment was 2-2.3 degrees more than in the treatment of five stages of foliar spraying with Ca. The highest concentration of calcium was observed in the treatments of three stages foliar spraying with Ca. The highest fruit firmness obtained in four and five foliar spraying Ca treatments and the lowest firmness in control treatment. Decreasing of fruit firmness during the time in four and five foliar spraying Ca treatments was lower than control. Results indicated the influence of different levels and periods of macro elements fertilizers application with foliar spraying of calcium on the quantities and qualitative promotion of kiwifruit in comparison to traditional fertilization.
احیایی م. و بهبهانیزاده ع. ا. 1372. شرح روشهای تجزیه شیمیایی خاک ﻣﺆسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب. نشریه فنی شماره 93.
امامی، ع. 1375. روشهای تجزیه گیاه وزارت کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب. 124 صفحه.
فتاحیمقدم، ج. و حلاجی ثانی، م. 1391. تعیین زمان مناسب برداشت میوه کیوی و تأثیر آن در کیفیت پس از برداشت. نشریه علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی)، 26 (2): 237-230
فلاحی ا. و چیذری، ا. ح. 1387. بررسی مزیت نسبی و سیاستهای حمایتی برای کیوی در ایران. مجله کشاورزی، 10 (1): 136-123.
Abdi, GH. and Khosh-Khmm Eshghi, S. 2006. Effect of natural zeolit on growth and flowering of straw beery. International Journal Agricultural Reserch, 1 (4): 384-389.
Akhtar, A., Abbasi, N. A. and Hussain, A. 2010. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on quality characteristic of Loquat fruit during storage. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42 (1): 181-188.
Ali, S., Masud, T., Abbasi, K. S., Mahmood, T., Abbasi, S. and Ali, A. 2013. Influence of CaCl2 on physic-chemical, sensory and microbial quality of Apricot Cv. Habi at ambient storage. Journal of chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 3 (4): 2744-2758.
Antunes, M. D., Panagopoulos, C., Rodrigues, T. S., Neves, N. and Curado, F. 2005. The effect of pre and postharvest calcium applications on Hayward Kiwifruit storage ability. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 682: V International Postharvest Symposium.
Beever, D. J. and Hopkric, G. 1990. Fruit development and fruit physiology, In: Warrington, I. J. and Weston, G. C. 1990. kiwifruit: The University of Auckland New Zealand. Pp. 97-126.
Burdon, J. and Clark, C. 2001. Effect of postharvest water loss on Hayward kiwifruit water status. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 22: 215-225.
Carlos, H. C. and Kader, A. 1999. Kiwifruit Postharvest Quality Maintenance Guidelines, Department of Pomology University of California.
Cicco, N., Dichio, B., Xiloyannis, C., Sofo, A. and Lattanzio, V. 2007. Influence of calcium on the activity of enzymes involved in kiwifruit ripening. ISHS Acta Horticulturae. VI International Symposium on Kiwifruit, No. 753.
Du, G., Li, M., Ma, F. and Liang, D. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and Vitamin C in Actinidia fruits. Food Chemistry, 113: 557-562.
Fallahi, E., Colt, W. M., Baird, C. R., Fallahi, B. and Chon, I. 2001. Influence of nitrogen and bagging on fruit quality and mineral concentration of Fuji apple trees. Horticulture Technology, 11: 462-466.
FAO, 2008, FAOSTAT Prod STAT. Updated 11 June 2008. Internet Resource: http:// faostat. Fao. Org/ site/567 /Desk-top Default. As px? Page ID=567#ancor(Verified May 9, 2009).
Fattahi, J., Fifall, R. and Babri, M. 2010. Postharvest quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) affected by pre-storage application of salicylic acid. South Western Journal of Horticulture Biology and Environment, 1: 175-186.
Feng, J. 2003. Segregation of Hayward kiwifruit for storage potential. PhD Thesis of Massey University Te Kunenga Ki Pureh Uroa, University of New Zealand.
Feng, J., Maguire, K. M. and MacKay, B. R. 2006. Discrimination batches of Hayward kiwifruit for storage potential. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41: 128-134.
Ferguson, A. R. and Ferguson, L. R. 2003. Are kiwifruit really good for you? Acta Horticalturae, V International Symposium on Kiwifruit, 610: 131-137.
Gerasopoulos, D. and Drogoudi, P. D. 2005. Summer-pruning and preharvest calcium chloride sprays affect storability and low temperature breakdown incidence in kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 36: 303-308.
Hernandez-Munoz, P., Almenar, E., Ocio, M. and Gavara, R. 2006. Effect of calcium dips and chitosan coatings on postharvest life of strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 39: 247-253.
Hossain, A. K. M., Koyama, H. and Hara, T. 2005. Sugar composition and molecular mass distributions of hemi cellulosic polysaccharides in wheat plants under aluminum stress at higher level of calcium supply. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 4 (1): 11-16.
Hosseini G. H. T. and Thengane, R. 2007. Salinity tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes, International Journal Botany, 3 (1): 48-55.
Huang, H. and Ferguson, A. R. 2001. Kiwifruit in china. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 29: 1-14.
Huang, S., Ding, J., Deng, D. and Tang, W. 2013. Draft genome of the Kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis. Nature Communications, 4: 2640-2648.
Hussain, P. R., Meena, R. S., Dar, M. A. and Wani, A. M. 2012. Effect of post-harvest calcium chloride dip treatment and gamma irradiation on storage quality and shelf-life extension of red delicious apple. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 94 (4): 415-426.
Johnson, R. S., Mitchell, F. G. and Costa, G. 1997. Nitrogen influences kiwifruit storage life. Acta Horticulturae, 444: 285-291.
Lara, I., Garcia, P. and Vendrell, M. 2004. Modifications in cell wall composition after cold storage of calcium-treated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 34: 331-339.
Li, J. Q., Li, X. W. and Soejarto, D. D. 2007. A revision of the genus actinidia from China. Flora of China Illustrations, 12: 334-362.
Mills, H. A. and Jones, J. B. 1996. Plant Analysis Handbook II. MicroMacro publishing. Inc.(Georgia, USA), 421Pp.
Misra, N. and Gupta, A. 2006. Interactive effects of sodium and calcium on prolin metabolism in salt tolerant green gram cultivar. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 1 (1): 1-12.
Mitchell, F. G. 1990. Postharvest physiology and technology of kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae, 282: 291-307.
Montanaro, G., Dichio, B., Lang, A., Mininni, A., Nuzzo, V., Michael, J., Water, C. and Xiloyannis, C. 2014. Internal versus external control of calcium nutrition in kiwifruit. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 177 (6): 819-830.
Murphy, J. and Riely, J. P. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27: 31-36
Naeem, M., Masroor, M., Khan, A. and Morris, J. B. 2009. Agro botanical attributes nitrogen-fixation, enzyme activities and nutraceuticals of Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.): A Bio- Functional medicinal legume. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 4 (2): 58-69.
Page, A. L., Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R. 1982. Methods of soil analysis, part: 2: chemical and biological properties 2nd ed., Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Pub. USA.
Patterson, K. J. and Currie, M. B. 2011. Optimising kiwifruit vine performance for high productivity and superior fruit taste. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 913: VII International Symposium on Kiwifruit.
Pervaiz, Z., Afzal, M., Xi, S., Xiaoe, Y. and Ancheng, L. 2002. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance in wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 4: 478-481.
Peticila, A., Vasile Scaeteanu, G., Madjar, R., Stanica, F. and Asanica, A. 2015. Fertilization effect on mineral nutrition of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwi) cultivated on different substrates. Procedia: Agriculture and Agricultural Science, 6: 132-138.
Poovaiah, B. W., Glenn, G. M. and Reddy, A. S. N. 1988. Calcium and fruit softening: physiology and biochemistry. Horticultural Reviews, 10: 107-152.
Singh, R., Singh, D. and Pathak, S. M. 2006. Relationship of leaf and fruit transpiration rates to the incidence of softening of tissue in mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 1 (1): 28-33.
Tabatabaei, S. J., Yusefi, M. and Hajiloo, J. 2007. Effects of shading and NO3: NH4 ratio on the yield, quality and N metabolism in strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 116: 264-272.
Tavarini, S., Degl’Innocenti, E., Remorini, D., Massai, R. and Guidi, L. 2008. Antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and after storage of Hayward kiwifruit. Food Chemistry, 107: 282-288.
Testolin, R. and Ferguson, A. R. 2009. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) production and marking in Italy. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 37: 1-32.
Warrington, I. J. and Weston, C. G. 1990. Kiwifruit: Science and management. R. Richards in associating with the New Zealand society for horticultural science, Publisher Auckland New Zealand. 567p.
Zhou, G. Z., Diao, T. Q., Wen, Z. F., Li, Y. X. and Lim, K. 1997. Effect of harvest maturity and picking methods on the commodity quality of kiwifruit. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Science, 10: 108-114.