تأثیر روش‌های مختلف به‌کارگیری کلرورکلسیم و کودهای عناصر پرمصرف (نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم) بر کیفیت و عمر پس از برداشت میوه کیوی رقم هایوارد

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه باغبانی، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت تغذیه صحیح درختان کیوی می‌تواند باعث افزایش عمر پس از برداشت میوه کیوی شود. در این پژوهش، در قالب یک طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی طی ده تیمار کودی اثر زمان‌های متفاوت محلول‌پاشی کلرورکلسیم (مرداد تا مهرماه) و مقادیر مختلف کودهای اوره، سوپرفسفات تریپل، سولفات پتاسیم بر روی میوه کیوی در باغی واقع در شهرستان آستانه اشرفیه (استان گیلان) بررسی شد. صفاتی مانند وزن‌تر، وزن‌خشک، درصد ماده خشک، اسیدیته، مواد جامد محلول، سفتی بافت، نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و کلسیم میوه در زمان برداشت و مواد جامد محلول و سفتی بافت میوه در زمان‌های 60 و 120 روز نگهداری در سردخانه (با دمای 5/0 ± 0 درجه سانتی‌گراد و رطوبت 90 تا 95 درصد) اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که درصد ماده خشک در تیمارهای پنج بار محلول‌پاشی با کلسیم به‌طور معنی‌دار بیشتر از شاهد بود. میزان قند در تیمارهای شاهد، 3/2-2 واحد درجه بریکس بیشتر از قند در تیمار پنج بار محلول‌پاشی کلسیم بود. بیش‌ترین غلظت کلسیم میوه در تیمارهای سه بار محلول‌پاشی با کلسیم دیده شد. بیش‌ترین سفتی میوه در تیمارهای چهار و پنج بار محلول‌پاشی با کلسیم و کم‌ترین سفتی میوه در تیمار شاهد مشاهده شد. کاهش سفتی بافت میوه در طی دوره انبارداری در تیمار پنج بار محلول‌پاشی کلسیم نسبت به شاهد بسیار کمتر بود. نتایج نشان‌دهنده تأثیر سطوح و زمان‌های متفاوت کودهای حاوی عناصر پرمصرف نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در تلفیق با محلول‌پاشی کلسیم در مقایسه با روش متداول کوددهی منطقه در ارتقاء کمی و کیفی میوه کیوی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Calcium Chloride Application Methods and Macro Elements Fertilizers (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) on Fruit Quality and Postharvest Life of Hayward Kiwi Fruit

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Honarkarian 1
  • Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand 2
1 Former MSc Student, Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The correct management of kiwi fruit tree nutrition can affect an increase in postharvest life of kiwi fruit. At this research, based on randomized complete block design with 10 fertilization treatments, the effect of different stages of foliar spraying CaCl2 (August to October) and different amounts of urea, triple superphophate and potassium sulphate on kiwi fruits in a kiwi orchard located at Astaneh Ashrafieh, Guilan Province, Iran, was investigated. The traits including fresh and dry weight, acidity, percent of dry matter, the brix and firmness of fruit, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium of fruit in harvesting time; and fruits firmness and brix in 60 and 120 days after keeping fruits in storage (temperature 0 ±0.5ºC and 90-95% moisture) were measured. Results showed that the dry matter percent in treatments of five stages foliar spraying calcium was significantly more than control. The brix in the control treatment was 2-2.3 degrees more than in the treatment of five stages of foliar spraying with Ca. The highest concentration of calcium was observed in the treatments of three stages foliar spraying with Ca. The highest fruit firmness obtained in four and five foliar spraying Ca treatments and the lowest firmness in control treatment. Decreasing of fruit firmness during the time in four and five foliar spraying Ca treatments was lower than control. Results indicated the influence of different levels and periods of macro elements fertilizers application with foliar spraying of calcium on the quantities and qualitative promotion of kiwifruit in comparison to traditional fertilization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Brix
  • Fertilizer
  • Fruit firmness
  • Fruit sugar
  • Plant nutrition

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