عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important medicinal plants to produce alkaloid is the dicot Poppies plant. This plant is the only commercial source of some important drugs such as Morphinan, antitussive codeine, antimicrobial Noscapine and Thebaine until now. The Agrobacterium rhizogenesis causes hairy root disease in plant wounds and optimization of hairy root cultures can increase the amount of alkaloids which are produced naturally in plants roots. In this study, in order to optimization of hairy roots induction with higher efficiency, two distinct factorial experiment for excised shoot and hypocotyl explants was conducted based on completely randomized design with 4 replications. In both of these factorial experiments, 3 factors was studied included Agrobacterium rhizogenesis (3 strain types), basal medium (B5 and 1/2B5) and light condition (48h dark and 16h dark/8h light). Results of excised shoot explant experiment showed that AR15834 strain induced highest percentage of hairy roots and about lateral branches in 1 cm length of hairy roots, the most lateral branches were observed by AR15834 strain in 1/2B5 medium. Results of hypocotyl explant experiment showed that amount of hairy root induction by this explant very lower than excised shoot explant experiment and AR15834 strain with 48h darkness was the best treatment. Totally, results of these two experiments showed that excised shoot explants had better response than hypocotyl explant and for excised shoot explant, 1/2B5 medium and AR15834 strain had the highest induced hairy roots.
Alpizar, E., Dechamp, E., Lapeyre-Montes, F., Guilhaumon, C., Bertrand, B., Jourdan, C., Lashermes, P. and Etienne, H. 2008. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots of coffee (Coffea arabica): conditions for long-term proliferation, and morphological and molecular characterization. Annals of Botany, 101: 929-940.
Batra, J., Dutta, A., Singh, D., Kumar, S. and Sen, J. 2004. Growth and terpenoid indole alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus hairy root clones in relation to left-and right-termini-linked Ri T-DNA gene integration. Plant Cell Reports, 23: 148-154.
Bivadi, V., Zakaria, R. A., Zare, N. and Yazdani, B. 2014. Effects of different tissue culture conditions in Hairy roots induction in Hypericum perforatum L., International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 8: 597-604.
Brownstein, M. J. 1993. A brief history of opiates, opioid peptides, and opioid receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90: 5391.
Chandran, R. P. and Potty, V. 2008. Induction of hairy roots through the mediation of four strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on five host plants. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 122-128.
Chong, T. M., Abdullah, M. A., Lai, O. M., Nor’Aini, F. M. and Lajis, N. H. 2005. Effective elicitation factors in Morinda elliptica cell suspension culture. Process Biochemistry, 40: 3397-3405.
Ge, X. and Wu, J. 2005. Tanshinone production and isoprenoid pathways in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots induced by Ag+ and elicitor. Plant Science, 168: 487-491.
Giri, A., Ravindra, S. T., Dhingra, V. and Narasu, M. L. 2001. Influence of different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua. Current Science, 81: 378-382.
Hagel, J. M. and Facchini, P. J. 2013. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism–a century of discovery and a brave new world. Plant and Cell Physiology, 54 (5): 647-72.
Hu, Z. B. and Du, M. 2006. Hairy root and its application in plant genetic engineering. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 48: 121-127.
Julsing, M. K., Quax, W. J. and Kayser, O. 2007. The Engineering of Medicinal Plants: Prospects and Limitations of Medicinal Plant Biotechnology. In: Medicinal Plant Biotechnology: From Basic Research to Industrial Applications (Editors: Kayser, O. and Quax, W.), John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 571 pp.
Khawar, K. and Ozcan, S. 2004. Hairy root transformation in Turkish chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) cultivars. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 18: 51-54.
Królicka, A., Staniszewska, I., Bielawski, K., Maliński, E., Szafranek, J. and Łojkowska, E. 2001. Establishment of hairy root cultures of Ammi majus. Plant Science, 160: 259-264.
Kutchan, T. M., Frick, S. and Weid, M. 2008. Engineering plant alkaloid biosynthetic pathways: progress and prospects. Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1: 283-310.
Le Flem-Bonhomme, V., Laurain-Mattar, D. and Fliniaux, M. 2004. Hairy root induction of Papaver somniferum var. album, a difficult-to-transform plant, by A. rhizogenes LBA 9402. Planta, 218: 890-893.
Liu, D. H., Ren, W. W., Cui, L. J., Zhang, L. D., Sun, X. F. and Tang, K. X. 2011. Enhanced accumulation of catharanthine and vindoline in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots by overexpression of transcriptional factor ORCA2. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 3260-3268.
Mohiuddin, A. K., Abdullah, Z. C., Chowdhury, K., Harikrishna, K. and Napis, S. 2011. Enhanced Virulence Gene Activity of Agrobacterium in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cv.‘Birdie’. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 3: 71-79.
Nandagopal, S. and Ranjitha Kumari, B. 2007. Effectiveness of auxin induced in vitro root culture in chicory. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 8: 73-80.
Park, S. U. and Facchini, P. J. 2000. Agrobacterium rhizogenes‐mediated transformation of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., and California poppy, Eschscholzia californica Cham., root cultures. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51: 1005-1016.
Rahimi, S., Hasanloo, T., Najafi, F. and Khavari-Nejad, R. A. 2011. Enhancement of Silymarin accumulation using precursor feeding in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures. Plant Omics Journal, 4 (1): 34-39.
Rostampour, S., Sohi, H. H., Jourabchi, E. and Ansari, E. 2009. Influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids production in Persian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lind L.): preliminary report. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25: 1807-1814.
Sánchez-Olate, M., Ríos, D., Rodríguez, R., Materán, M. E. and Pereira, G. 2004. Duracion del efecto revigorizante de podas severas de plantas adultas de avellano europeo (Corylus avellana L.) cv. Negretta sobre el cultivo in vitro. Agricultura Técnica, 64: 338-346.
Sharafi, A., Sohi, H. H., Mousavi, A., Azadi, P., Dehsara, B. and Khalifani, B. H. 2013. Enhanced morphinan alkaloid production in hairy root cultures of Papaver bracteatum by over-expression of salutaridinol 7-o-acetyltransferase gene via Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 29: 2125-2131.
Yoshimatsu, K. and Shimomura, K. 1992. Transformation of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF 03-01724. Plant Cell Reports, 11: 132-136.