تأثیر منابع و سطوح مختلف سلنیوم بر برخی ویژگی‌های رشدی و فیزیولوژیکی پیاز (Allium cepa L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی و اصلاح سبزی گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

سلنیوم (Se) یک عنصر ضروری برای انسان و حیوانات است. با این حال، اثرات آن بر گیاهان کمتر شناخته شده است. در این پژوهش، تاثیر منابع و سطوح مختلف سلنیوم بر رشد و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی پیاز در شرایط کشت بدون خاک مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت تا علاوه بر صفات کیفی مطلوب و قابل قبول، مشکلی برای انسان و گیاه نداشته باشد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل 4 غلظت نانوسلنیوم (2، 5، 10 و 30 میلی­گرم بر لیتر) و 3 غلظت سلنیت سدیم (2، 4 و 8 میلی­گرم بر لیتر) و سلنات سدیم (1، 2 و 3 میلی­گرم بر لیتر) بودند که هر کدام به­طور جداگانه در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار اجرا شدند. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح مختلف نانوسلنیوم، سلنیت سدیم و سلنات سدیم اثر معنی­داری بر وزن تر برگ، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و وزن تر ساقه مجازی گیاه پیاز و نیز بر وزن تر سوخ، قطر سوخ و طول سوخ پیاز دارند. سطوح مختلف سلنیت سدیم و سلنات سدیم اثر معنی­داری بر میزان کلروفیل برگ و سلنیوم کل سوخ داشتند. بیشترین میزان کلروفیل برگ در سطوح پائین سلنیت سدیم و سلنات سدیم مشاهده شد که با افزایش غلظت سلنیوم در محلول غذایی میزان کلروفیل برگ پیاز نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت. میزان سلنیوم کل سوخ با افزایش غلظت سلنیت سدیم و سلنات سدیم در محلول غذایی افزایش یافت، البته این افزایش در گیاهان تیمار شده با سلنات سدیم بیشتر از گیاهان تیمار شده با سلنیت سدیم بود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Sources and Levels of Selenium on Growth and Some Physiological Characteristics of Onion (Allium cepa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • masoumeh ameriyan 1
  • farshad dashti 2
  • mojtaba delshad 3
چکیده [English]

Selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans and animals. However, its effects are less known on plants. In this study, the effect of different sources and levels of selenium was studied on growth and some physiological characteristics of onion in hydroponic system, it is done in order to have a good and an acceptable quality character, and does not have a problem for human and plant. The treatments included four levels of selenium nanoparticles (2, 5, 10 and 30 mgL-1) and three concentrations of sodium selenite (2, 4 and 8 mgL-1) and sodium selenate (1, 2, and 3 mgL-1), each treatment were separately performed in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that in seedling stage different levels of nano-selenium, sodium selenite and sodium selenate were significantly effected on leaf fresh weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, pseudostem fresh weight and also bulb weight, bulb diameter and length of bulbs. Sodium selenite and sodium selenate were significantly effected on leaf chlorophyll content and total selenium bulb. The highest leaf chlorophyll content was observed at low levels of sodium selenite and sodium selenate by increasing selenium concentration in nutrient solution, leaf chlorophyll content were decreased in comparison with control. The content of total selenium bulb increased with increasing sodium selenite and sodium selenate concentration in nutrient solution, However increase in plants treated with sodium selenate was more than plants treated with sodium selenite.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sodium selenite
  • Sodium selenate
  • Nano-selenium
  • Nutrient and hydroponic culture
Aggarwal, M., Sharma, S., Kaur, N., Pathania , D., Bhandhari, K., Kaushal, N., Kaur, R., Singh, K., Srivastava, A. and Nayyar, H. 2011. Exogenous proline application reduces phytotoxic effects of selenium by minimising oxidative stress and improves growth in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings. Biological Trace Element Research, 140: 354-367.

Amweg, E. L., Stuart, D. L. and Weston, D. P. 2003. Comparative bioavailability of selenium to  aquatic organisms after biological treatment of gricultural drainage water. Aquatic Toxicology, 63: 13-25.

Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzyme in isolated chlroplasts; polyphenol-oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24: 1-15.

Aslam, M., Harbit, K. B. and Huffaker, R. C. 1990. Comparative effects of selenite and selenate on nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Plant, Cell and Environment, 13: 773-782.

Barceloux, D. G. 1999. Selenium. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 37:145-172.

Cartes, P., Gianfera, L. and Mora, M. L. 2005. Uptake of selenium and its antioxidative activity in ryegrass when applied a selenate and selenite forms. Plant and Soil, 276: 359-367.

Chi-Ming, Y., Chyoung-Ni L., and Chang-Hung C. 2002. Effect of three allelopathic phenolics on chlorophyll accumulation of rice (Oryza sativa) seedling: inhabitation of suply-orientation. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 43: 299-304.

Clark, S. A., Shaw, M. L., Every, D. and Lancaster, J. E. 1998. Physical characterization of alliinase, the flavor generating enzyme in onions. J. Food Biochem, 22: 91-103.

Clark, S.A., M.L. Shaw, D. Every, and J.E. Lancaster. 1998. Physical characterization of alliinase, the flavor generating enzyme in onions.Journal of Food Biochemistry. 22: 91-103.

Combs, Jr., G. F. 2000. Food system-based approaches to improving micronutrient nutrition: the case for selenium. Biofactors, 12: 39-43.

De la Luz Mora, M ., Pinilla, L., Rosas, A. and Cartes, P. 2008. Selenium uptake and its influence on the antioxidative system of white clover as affected by lime and phosphorus fertilization. Plant Soil, 303: 139-149.

De Souza, M. P., Pilon-Smits, E. A. H., Lytle, C. M., Hwang, S and Tai, J. 1998. Rate-limiting steps in selenium assimilation and volatilization by Indian mustard. Journal of Plant Physiology, 117: 1487-1494.

Ellis, D. R. and Salt, D. E. 2003. Plants, selenium and human health. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6: 273-279

Fraga, C. G. 2005. Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26: 235-244.

Golubkina, G. A., Folmanis, G. F. and Tananaev, I. G. 2012. Comparative evaluation of selenium accumulation by Allium species after foliar application of selenium nanoparticles, sodium selenite and sodium selenate. Doklady Biological Science, 444: 176-179.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M. A. and Fujita, M. 2010. Selenium in Higher Plant: Physiological Role, Antioxidant Metabolism and Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Journal of Plnat Sciences, 5 (4): 354-375.

Kapolna, E. and Fodor, P. 2006. Speciation analysis of selenium enriched green onions (Allium fistulosum) by HPLC-ICP-MS. Microchemical Journal, 84:56-62.

Kopsell, D. A. and Randle, W. M. 1999. Selenium affects the S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides among short-day onion cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 124 (3): 307-311.

Li, H. F., McGrath, S. P. and Zhao, F. J .2008. Selenium uptake, translocation and speciation in wheat supplied with selenate or selenite. New Phytol, 178:92-102.

Longchamo, M., Angeli, N and Castrec-Rouelle, M. 2013. Selenium uptake in Zea mays supplied with selenite or selenite under hydroponic conditions. Plant Soil, 362: 107-117.

Nagarani, B., Subal, D., Santhosh, K. C., Chiranjib, B. G. and Ganesh, K. 2011. A review: Herbs used as anticancer agents. International Research Journalof Pharmacy, 2: 20-24.

Pennanen, A., Xue, T., Hartikainen, H and Xue, T. L. 2002. Protective role of selenium in plant subjected to severe UV irradiation stress. Journal Applied. Botany, 76: 66-76.

Poldma, P., Moor, U., Tonutare, T., Herodes, K. and Rebane, R. 2013. Selenium Treatment Under Field Conditions Affects Mineral Nutrition, Yield and Antioxidant properties of bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum- Hortorum Cultus, 12 (6): 167-181.

Pyrzynska, K. 2009. Selenium speciation in enriched vegetables. Food Chemistry, 114: 1183-1191.

Ramos, S. J., Faquin, V., Guilherme, L. R. G., Castro, E. M., Ávila, F. W., Carvalho, G. S., Bastos, C. E. A and Oliveira, C. 2010. Selenium biofortification and antioxidant activity in lettuce plants fed with selenate and selenite. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56 (12): 584-588.

Rayman, M. P. 2000. The importance of selenium to human health. The Lancet, 356 (9225): 233-241.

Saffaryazdi, A., Lahouti, M., Ganjeali, A. and Bayat, H. 2012. Impact of selenium supplementation on growth and selenium accumulation on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants. Natulae Scientia Biologicae, 4(4): 95-100.

Shamberger, R. J. 1981. Selenium in the environment. Science of the Total Environment, 17: 59-74.

Sharma, S., Bansal, A., Surjit, K. D., Dhillon, K. D. 2010. Comparative effects of selenate and selenite on growth and biochemical composition of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Plant Soil, 329: 339-348.

Sors, T. G., Ellis, D. R. and Salt, D. E. 2005. Selenium uptake, translocation, assimilation an metabolic fate in plants. Photosynthesis Research, 86: 373-389.

Whanger, P. D. 2002. Review. Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21: 223-232.

Whanger, P. D. 2004. Selenium and its relationship to cancer. British Journal of Nutrition, 91: 11-28.

White, P. J., Bowen, H. C., Parmaguru,  P., Fritz, M., Spracklen ,W. P., Spiby, R. E., Meacham, M. C., Mead, A., Harriman, M., Trueman, L. J., Smith, B. M., Thomas, B and Broadley, M. R. 2004. Interactions between selenium and sulphur nutrition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55: 404.

Wrobel, K., Wrobel, K., Kannamkumarath, S. S., Caruso, J. A., Wysocka, I, A., Bulska,., Swiatek, J. E. and Wierzbicka, M . 2004. HPLC–ICP-MS speciation of selenium in enriched onion leaves a potential dietary source of Se-methylselenocysteine. Food Chemistry, 86 (4): 617-623.

Wu, L. and Huang , Z. Z. 1991. Chloride and sulfate salinity effects on selenium accumulation by Tall Fescue. Crop Science Society of American, 31: 114-118.

Xu, J., Yang, F., Chen, L., Hu, Y and Hu, Q .2003. Effect of selenium on increasing the antioxidant activity of tea leaves harvested during the early spring tea producing season. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51:1081-1084.

Zayed, A., Lytle, C. M, and Terry, N .1998. Accumulation and volatilization of different chemical species of selenium by plants. Planta, 206:284-292.