بررسی صفات فیزیولوژیکی ارقام گندم تحت سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و آبیاری

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر آبیاری تکمیلی و سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دو رقم گندم دیم، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در سال زراعی 1388-1387 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل آبیاری تکمیلی به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی در 4 سطح (دیم و آبیاری در مراحل غلاف رفتن، گرده‌افشانی و پرشدن دانه)، کود نیتروژن خالص به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی در 4 سطح (صفر، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و دو رقم گندم دیم (سرداری و کراس البرز) در کرت فرعی فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر آبیاری تکمیلی، سطوح نیتروژن و رقم بر عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود. بالاترین عملکرد دانه با آبیاری تکمیلی در مراحل گرده­افشانی و غلاف رفتن به‌ترتیب با 362/2 و 352/0 گرم در مترمربع به‌دست آمد. بیشترین میزان پروتئین دانه در شرایط شاهد (دیم) حاصل شد. با آبیاری تکمیلی نسبت به شرایط دیم محتوای نسبی آب برگ و کلروفیل b افزایش یافت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (337/0 گرم در مترمربع) با اعمال 50 کیلو گرم در هکتار نیتروژن به‌دست آمد. رقم کراس البرز عملکرد دانه و عملکرد پروتئین بیشتری نسبت به رقم سرداری داشت. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش، اهمیت آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله گرده‌افشانی و یا غلاف رفتن نسبت به دوره پرشدن دانه بیشتر بود. با آبیاری در این مراحل و همچنین با مصرف 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، عملکرد دانه و شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی گندم افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Wheat Cultivars for Physiological Traits under Different Levels of Nitrogen and Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamze Felekari 1
  • Mohammadeghbal Ghobadi 2
  • Gholam Reza Mohammadi 3
  • Said Jalali-Honarmand 3
1 PhD Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen amounts on yield and yield components of two dryland wheat cultivars an experimental was carried out in a split split plot design arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the farm of Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2008-2009. Experimental treatments including supplemental irrigation as the main plot at 4 levels (no irrigation and irrigation at booting, anthesis and grain filling stages) and net nitrogen as a sub plot at 4 levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) and two wheat cultivars (Sardari and Cross-Alborz) as sub-sub plots. The result showed that the effect of supplementary irrigation, N rate and cultivar were significant on grain yield. The highest of grain yield obtained in supplemental irrigation at anthesis and booting stages with 362.2 and 352.0 g m-2, respectively. The highest amount of grain protein content obtained at non irrigation treatment. Supplementary irrigation at booting, anthesis and grain filling stages increased relative water content and chlorophyll b. The maximum grain yield (337.0 g m-2) was produced with application of 50 kg ha-1 N. Cross-Alborz relative to Sardari cultivar had highest grain and protein yields. To the results of this experiment, supplemental irrigation at Anthesis or stem elongation stage was important compared to the grain filling stage. Irrigation at these stages and also, use of 50 kg ha-1 N, increased grain yield and physiological charactristics of wheat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat
  • Irrigation
  • Nitrogen
  • Physiological traits

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