تأثیر کم‌آبیاری بر عملکرد، خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی و فیزیولوژیکی هیبریدهای ذرت (.Zea mays L)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری زراعت، دانشکده علوم پایه، آکادمی ملی علوم ارمنستان، ایروان، ارمنستان

2 استاد گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده علوم پایه، آکادمی ملی علوم ارمنستان، ایروان، ارمنستان

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی عملکرد، اجزاء عملکرد و راندمان مصرف آب و هم‌چنین پاسخ بیوشیمیایی گیاه ذرت به کم آبیاری، آزمایشی در منطقه کرج در سال‌های 1388 و 1389 انجام شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل پنج رژیم مختلف آبیاری {آبیاری کامل (1I)، 5/12 درصد (2I)، 25 درصد (3I)، 5/37 درصد (4I) و 50 درصد (5I) کم آبیاری{ و سه هیبرید ذرت شامل سینگل کراس 704، 500 و 301 بود. در هر سه هیبرید، کم‌ آبیاری سبب کاهش محتوای نشاسته برگ و ریشه و افزایش قندهای محلول شد. سطح پرولین نیز در برگ و ریشه‌ی هر سه هیبرید درنتیجه‌ی کم آبیاری افزایش یافت. افزایش محتوای پرولین در برگ نسبت به ریشه بالاتر بود، اما افزایش مقدار قند محلول و کاهش محتوای نشاسته در ریشه بیشتر از برگ شد. هم‌چنین بیش‌ترین پرولین و قندهای محلول برگ و ریشه در تیمار 50% کم‌آبیاری و بیشترین نشاسته برگ و ریشه در آبیاری کامل مشاهده گردید. نتایج هم‌چنین نشان داد که بیش‌ترین تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه در آبیاری کامل مشاهده شد. البته تفاوت معنی‌داری از لحاظ مقدار اجزاء عملکرد بین آبیاری کامل و 5/12 درصد کم آبیاری مشاهده نشد. در آزمایش انجام شده، حداکثر راندمان مصرف آب در سینگل کراس704 در تیمار 5/12 درصد کم آبیاری و در سینگل کراس 500 و 301 در تیمار 25 درصد کم آبیاری مشاهده گردید. در مجموع چنین نتیجه‌گیری شد که هیبرید سینگل کراس 704 در شرایط 5/12 درصد کم‌آبیاری جهت دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد و حداکثر راندمان مصرف آب قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Yield and Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Corn Hybrids (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Houman Homayouni 1
  • Victoria Khazarian 2
  • Mohsen Saeidi 3
1 PhD Graduated, Department of Basic Sciences, Institute of Botanic, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan
2 Professor, Department of Basic Sciences, Institute of Botanic, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah
چکیده [English]

To evaluate corn yield, yield components, and water use efficiency as well as biochemical responses to deficit irrigation, a farm experiment was executed in Karaj in 2009 and 2010. The factors consisted of five different irrigation regimes [including full irrigation (I1), 12.5% (I2), 25% (I3), 37.5% (I4) and 50% (I5) water deficit] and three corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids (Sc704, Sc500 and Sc301). Deficit irrigation decreased starch content and increased soluble sugars in the leaves and roots of all three hybrids. Proline level in roots of all three hybrids was also increased in response to deficit irrigation. The increase in proline content was higher in leaves than in roots, but the increase in soluble sugar content and decrease in starch content were higher in roots than in leaves. Results indicated that the highest leaf and root proline and soluble sugars levels were related to treatment I5 and the highest leaf and root starch content were related to full irrigation. Results also indicated that the highest number of grains per ear, weight of one thousand grains and grain yield were related to full irrigation. There was no significant differences between full irrigation and 12.5% of water deficit. In the conducted test, maximum water use efficiency in Sc704 was observed in treatment I2 and in Sc500 and Sc301 were observed in treatment I3. In sum, it is concluded that the hybrid to Sc704 in 12.5% of water deficit could be recommended in order to achieve maximum yield and water use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Proline
  • Water use efficiency
  • Soluble sugars
  • Restriction of humidity
  • Starch

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