اثر اسپری برگی اسید‌سالیسیلیک بر عملکرد و اسانس گیاه دارویی بادرشبی در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه

2 کارشناس‌ارشد زراعت، اداره حفاظت محیط شهرستان پیرانشهر، پیرانشهر

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه

4 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

چکیده

بادرشبیگیاهی دارویی و ارزشمند و سازگار به مناطق مختلف آب و هوایی است و در مناطق شمالی و شمال‌غرب ایران یافت می‌شود. شوری خاک به‌عنوان یکی از عوامل محدودکننده رشد گیاهان در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک جهان ازجمله ایران شناخته شده است. آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی جهت بررسی اثر چهار غلظت محلول اسید سالیسیلیک (صفر (شاهد)، 5/0، 1 و 5/1 میلی‌مولار) و سه سطح غلظت شوری با کلریدسدیم (صفر (شاهد)، 5/2 و 5 میلی‌موس بر سانتی‌متر) در سه تکرار روی برخی صفات مورفولوژیکی، عملکرد و اسانس بادرشبی در گلخانه اجرا شد. تعداد ساقه‌های فرعی گل‌دهنده تحت تنش‌های شوری 5/2 و 5 میلی‌موس بر سانتی‌متر به‌ترتیب 3/9 و 4/28 درصد نسبت به شرایط بدون تنش کاهش پیدا کرد. هم‌چنین سطوح اسید‌سالیسیلیک با غلظت‌های 5/0، 1 و 5/1 میلی‌مولار بدون تفاوت معنی‌دار با یکدیگر به‌طور متوسط باعث افزایش 5/32 درصدی تعداد ساقه فرعی گل‌دهنده نسبت به شاهد شدند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد در شوری 5/2 میلی‌موس بر سانتی‌متر، مصرف هر سه غلظت اسید‌سالیسیلیک و در شوری 5 میلی‌موس بر سانتی‌متر کاربرد 1 و 5/1 میلی‌مولار آن بر وزن خشک بوته، درصد اسانس، عملکرد اسانس و شاخص برداشت اسانس نسبت به شاهد بهتر عمل کردند. غلظت‌های صفر، 1 و 5/1 میلی‌مولار اسید‌سالیسیلیک باعث افزایش وزن خشک ریشه نسبت به شاهد در شوری 5/2 و 5 میلی‌موس بر سانتی‌متر شدند. شاخص کلروفیل برگ در شوری 5 میلی‌موس بر سانتی‌متر‌ به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت ولی مصرف هر سه غلظت اسید‌سالیسیلیک باعث افزایش 15 درصدی آن نسبت به شاهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Salicylic Acid Foliar Application on Yield and Essential Oil in Moldavian Balm Under Salinity Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yousef Nasiri 1
  • Taha Izan 2
  • Abdollah Javanmard 3
  • Jalal Arzhe 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh
2 Master of Science, Department of Environmental Protection of Piranshahr City, Piranshahr
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh
4 PhD Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica) is a valuable medicinal plant adaptable to different climatic regions found in the North and North West of Iran. Soil salinity is known as a limiting factor for plants growth in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, including Iran. This study was carried out as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design in order to investigate the effect of four levels of salicylic acid solution (0, 0.5, 1 and 5.1 mM) and three levels of salinity with sodium chloride (0, 2.5 and 5 mmohs/cm) with three replicates on some morphological traits, yield and essential oil of Moldavian balm at greenhouse. Number of lateral flowering stems was reduced by 9.3 and 28.4% under 2.5 and 5 mmohs/cm salinity, respectively compared to non-stress condition. Also, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM salicylic acid increased number of lateral flowering stems by an average of 32.5 % compared to the control. Results of mean comparison showed that in 2.5 mmohs/cm salinity, application of all three concentrations of salicylic acid, and in 5 mmohs/cm salinity, application of 1 and 1.5 mM salicylic acid, shoot dry weight of plant, essential oil percentage, essential oils yield and harvest index of essential oil had better performance than the control. Concentrations of 0, 1 and 1.5 mM of salicylic acid increased root dry weight of plant in 2.5 and 5 mmohs/cm salinity compared to the control. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in 5 mmohs/cm salinity level, but the application of all three levels of salicylic acid increased Chlorophyll content as much as 15 percent compared to the control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth regulator
  • Dracocephalum moldavica
  • NaCl
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Dry weight

امیدبیگی، ر. 1390. تولید و فرآوری گیاهان داروئی. جلد سوم، انتشارات آستان قدس رضوی، 438 صفحه.

پیرزاد، ع.، فیاض‌مقدم، ا.، رازبان، م. و راعی، ی. 1391. بررسی عملکرد گل، اسانس و شاخص برداشت اسانس بابونه آلمانی .LMatricaria chamomilla   تحت رژیم‌های آبیاری و مقادیر سوپرجاذب .A200 نشریه دانش کشاورزی و تولید پایدار، 22 (3): 99-85.

کافی، م. 1388. فیزیولوژی تنش‌های محیطی در گیاهان. چاپ اول، مشهد، انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد، 502 صفحه.

گوهری، غ.، حسن‌پور‌اقدم، م.، دادپور، م. و شیردل، م. 1392. تأثیر محلول‌پاشی سطوح مختلف روی بر ویژگی‌های رشدی و عملکرد اسانس ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) در شرایط تنش شوری. علوم و فنون کشت‌های گلخانه‌ای، سال چهارم، 15: 23-15.

نوری، ک.، امیدی، ح.، نقدی‌بادی، ح.‌، ترابی، ح. و فتوکیان، م. 1391. تأثیر شوری آب و خاک بر عملکرد گل، ترکیبات محلول، محتوی عناصر شوری و کیفیت اسانس بابونه شیرازی (Matricaria recutita L.). مجله پژوهش آب در کشاورزی، 26 (4): 378-367.

Abd El-Baky, H. and El-Baroty, G. 2008. Chemical and biological evaluation of the essential oil of Egyptian Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). International Journal of Integrative Biology, 3: 202-208.

Abd El-Lateef Gharib, F. 2006. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, metabolic activities and oil content of Basil and Marjoram. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8 (4): 485-492.

Abou El-Fadl, I. A., Abd-Ella, M. K. and Hussein, E. H. 1990. Effect of irrigation by saline water on the growth and some principal compounds of peppermint and spearmint in two types of soil. Journal of Agricultural Research, 16: 276-295.

Ashraf, M. and Akhtar, N. 2004. Influence of salt stress on growth, ion accumulation and seed oil content in sweet fennel. Bologia Plantarum, 48 (3): 461-464.

Bayat, H., Alirezaie, M. and Neamati, H. 2012. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) under salinity stress. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 8 )1(: 258-267. 

Belaqziz, R., Romane, A. and Abbad, A. 2009. Salt stress effects on germination, growth and essential oil content of an endemic thyme species in Morocco (Thymus maroccanus Ball.). Journal of Applied Sciences, 5 (7): 858-63.

Cláudia Pacheco, A., da Silva Cabral, Carolina, da Silva Fermino, É. S. and Cabral Aleman, C. 2013. Salicylic acid induced changes to growth, flowering and flavonoids production in marigold plants. Global Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 1 (1): 95-100.

Clevenger, J. F. 1928. Apparatus for determination of essential oil. Journal of American Pharmacists Association, 17: 346-349.

Dastmalchi, K., Damien-Dorman, H. J., Laakso, I. and Hiltunen, R. 2007. Chemical composition and antioxidative activity of Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) extracts. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologi, 40: 1655-1663.

Dmitruk, M. and Weryszko-Chmielewska, S. 2010. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots. Acta Agrobotanica, 1: 11-22.

Dow, A. I., Cline, T. A. and Horning, E. V. 1981. Salt tolerance studies on irrigated mint. Bulletin of Agricultural Research Center, Washington State University, Pullman, 906 pp.

El-Keltawi, N. E. and Croteau, R. 1987. Salinity depression of growth and essential oil formation in spearmint and marjoram and its reversal by foliar applied cytokines. Phytochemistry, 26 (5): 1333-1334.

El-Shafy, S., Meawad, A., Awad, A. and Shaer, M. 1991. Effect of combination treatment between salinity, Gamma irradiation as well as cycocyl on: II Leaf pigment and chemical constituents of sweet basil plants. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, 18: 2247-2293.

Fahad, S. H. and Bano, A. S. 2012. Effect of salicylic acid on physiological and biochemical characteriation of maize growth in saline area. Pakistan Journal Botany, 44 (4):1433-1438.

Fatemi, R. and Aboutalebi, A. 2012. Valuation the interaction of salinity and salicylic acid on Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) properties. Annals of Biological Research, 3 (11): 5106-5109.

Gautam, S. H. and Sing, K. 2009. Salicylic acid -induced salinity tolerance in corn grown under NaCl stress. Acta Physiology Plant, 31: 1185-1190.

Greenway, H. and Munns, R. 1980. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 31: 149-190.

Hayat, Q., Hayat S., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68: 14-25.

Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q., Ali, B. and Ahmad, A. 2005. Effect of salicylic acid on growth and enzyme activities of wheat seedlings. Acta Agronomoca Hungarica, 53 (4): 433-437.

Hendawy, S. F. and Khalid, K. A. 2005. Response of sage Salvia officinalis L. plants to zinc application under different salinity levels. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 1 (2): 147-155.

Idress, M., Naeem, M., Nasir Khan, M., Aftab, T., Masroor, A. and Moinuddin, K. H. 2012. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid. Protoplasma, 249: 709-720.

Jayakannan, M., Bose, J., Babourina, O., Rangel, Z. and Shabala, S. 2015. Salicylic acid in plant salinity stress signaling and tolerance. Plant Growth Regulation, 76 (1): 25-40.

Karlidag, H., Ertan, Y. and Turan, M. 2009. Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.), 66 (2): 180-187.

Kaydan, D., Yagmur, M. and Okut, N. 2007. Effects of salicylic acid on the growth and some physiological characters in salt stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, 13 (2): 114-119.

Kayednezami, R., Balouchi, H. R. and Yadavi, A. 2012. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid on yield and yield components and some physiological traits of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) varieties under salt stress. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 3 (2): 97-110.

Khalid, K. A. and Cai, W. 2011. The effects of mannitol and salinity stresses on growth and biochemical accumulations in lemon balm. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31: 112-120

Khan, W., Prithiviraj, B. and Smith, D. L. 2003. Photosynthetic responses of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. Plant Physiology, 160: 485-492.

Khorasaninejad, S., Mousavi, A., Soltanloo, H., Khodayar Hemmati, K. and Khalighi, A. 2010. The effect of salinity stress on growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituent of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). World Applied Sciences Journal, 11 (11): 1403-1407.

Khurama, J. P. S. and Cleland, C. F. 1992. Role of salicylic acid and benzoic acid in flowering of a photoperiod-insensitive strain, Lemna paucicostata LP6. Plant Physiology, 100 (3): 1541-1546.

Martin-Mex, R., Villanueva-Couoh, E., Herrera-Campos, T. and Larque´-Saavedra, A. 2005. Positive effect of salicylates on the flowering of African violet. Scientia Horticulturae, 103: 499-502.

Munns, R. 2003. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environment, 25: 239-50.

Murphy, K. S. T. and Durako, M. J. 2003. Physiological effect of short term salinity changes on Ruppia maritime. Aquat Botany, 75: 293-309.

Najafian, S., Khoshkhui, M., Tavallali, V. and Saharkhiz, M. J. 2009. Effect of salicylic acid and salinity in Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.): investigation on changes in gas exchange, water relations, and membrane stabilization and biomass accumulation. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3 (3): 2620-2626.

Ozturk, A., Unlukara, A., Ipek, A. and Gurbuz, B. 2004. Effects of salt stress and water deficit on plant growth and essential oil content of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 36 (4): 787-792.

Parida, A. K., Das, A. B., Mittra, B. and Mohanty, P. 2004. Salt-stress induced alterations in protein profile and protease activity in the mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora. Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 59: 408-414.

Pazoki, A. 2015. Influence of salicylic and jasmonic acid on chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls contents of Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under salt stress conditions. Biological Forum-An International Journal, 7 (1): 287-292.

Pessarakli, M. and Szabolcs, I. 1999. Soil salinity and sodicity as particular plant/crop stress In: Pessarakli, M. (Ed). Handbook of plant and crop stress, 2nd Edition. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Petropoulos, S. A., Dimitra, D., Polissiou, M. G. and Passam, H. C. 2008. The effect of water deficit stress on the growth, yield and composition of essential oils of parsley. Scientia Horticulturae, 115: 393-397.

Piraste-Anosheh, H., Ranjbar, G. Emam, Y. and Ashraf, M. 2014.Salicylic acid-induced recovery ability in salt-stressed Hordeum vulgare Plants. Turkish Journal of Botany, 38: 112-121.

 Prasad, A., Anwar, M., Patra, D. D. and Singh, D. V. 1996. Tolerance of mint plants to soil salinity. Journal of Indian Society Soil Science, 44 (1): 184-186.

Raman, V. and Ravi, S. 2011. Effect of salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate on antioxidant systems of Haematococcus pluvialis. Acta Physiol Plant, 33: 1043-1049.

Ramezani, E., Ghajar Sepanloum, M. and Naghdi Badi, H. A. 2011. The effect of salinity on the growth, morphology and physiology of Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (44): 8765-8773.

Rowshan, V., Khosh Khoi, M. and Javidnia, K. 2010. Effects of salicylic acid on quality and quantity of essential oil components in Salvia macrosiphon. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 4 (11): 77-82.

Sadeghian, F., Hadian, J., Hadavi, M., Mohamadi, A., Ghorbanpour, M. and Ghafarzadegan, R. 2013. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid application on growth, metabolic activities and essential oil composition of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 12 (47): 70-82.

Said-Al Ahl, H. A. H. and Mahmoud, A. A.  2010. Effect of zinc and/or iron foliar application on growth and essential oil of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under salt stress. Ozean Journal of Applied Science, 3 (1): 97-111.

Sakhabutdinova, A. R., Fatkhudinova, D. F., Bezrukova, M. V. and Shakirova, F. M. 2003. Salicylic acid prevents the damaging action of stress factor in wheat plants. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, Special Issue: 314-319.

Stevens, J., Senaratna, T. and Krishnapillai, S. 2006. Salicylic acid induces salinity tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Roma): associated changes in gas exchange, water relations and membrane stabilisation. Plant Growth Regulation, 49: 77-83.

Taarit, M., Msaada, K., Hosni, K. and Marzouk, B. 2010. Changes in fatty acid and essential oil composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves under NaCl stress, Food Chemistry, 119: 951-956.

Tabatabaie, S. J. and Nazari, J. 2007. Influence of nutrient concentration and NaCl salinity on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil content of peppermint and lemon verbena. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 31: 245-53.

Tarakhovskaya, E. R., Maslov, Y. I. and Shishova, M. F. 2007. Phytohormones in Algae. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 54: 163-170.

Tari, I., Csiszar, J., Szalai, G., Horvath, F., Pecsvaradi, A., Kiss, G., Szepsi, A., Szabo, M. and Erdei, L. 2002. Acclimation of tomato plants to salinity stress after a salicylic acid pre-treatment. Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 46 (3-4): 55-56.

Vlot, A. C., Dempsey, M. A. and Klessig, D. F. 2009. Salicylic acid, a multifaceted hormone to combat disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 47: 177-206.

Walia, H., Wilson, C., Condamine, P., Liu, X., Ismail, A. M. and Close, T. J. 2007. Large scale expression profiling and physiological characterizations of jasmonic acid-mediated adaptation of barley to salinity stress. Plant Cell Environ, 30: 410-421.