غنی‌سازی محصولات کشاورزی با عنصر سلنیوم و اثرات آن بر فیزیولوژی گیاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باغبانی، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری

چکیده

امروزه اهمیت سلنیوم برای سلامتی انسان به‌طور عمومی شناخته شده است. طبق توصیه سازمان بهداشت جهانی، نیاز روزانه یک فرد بالغ به سلنیوم در حدود 50 میکروگرم می‌باشد. متأسفانه بیشتر گیاهان از نظر میزان سلنیوم فقیر هستند و همین مسئله ضرورت غنی‌سازی محصولات کشاورزی با سلنیوم را به خوبی مشخص می‌کند. در بین سبزی‌ها، سیر و کلم بروکلی انباشتگرهای خوبی برای سلنیوم به حساب می‌آیند. جایگزینی اسید‌‌آمینه‌های گوگردی توسط اسید‌آمینه‌های سلنیومی مانند: سلنومتیونین و سلنوسیتئین می‌تواند واکنش‌های بیوشیمیایی را مختل کند. گیاهانی که مقاومت بالایی نسبت به تجمع سلنیوم دارند می‌توانند سلنیوم را در ترکیب اسید‌آمینه‌های غیرپروتئینی وارد کنند. هرچند سمیت سلنیوم در غلظت‌های بالا برای گیاهان کاملاً محرز بوده و نوعی تنش محسوب می‌گردد، ولی اثرات سودمند غلظت‌های پایین سلنیوم در حفاظت گیاهان در برابر تنش‌های غیرزیستی، گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن و فعال‌سازی سازوکارهای کاهنده تنش‌های اکسیداتیو در پژوهش‌های متفاوتی گزارش شده است. در انسان مرز بین سمیت و کمبود سلنیوم بسیار باریک بوده و بستگی زیادی به شکل شیمیایی سلنیوم دارد. مصرف ناکافی سلنیوم منجر بروز به مشکلات ناشی از کمبود این عنصر می‌گردد، ضمن اینکه مصرف زیاد از حد آن می‌تواند موجب سمیت شود. با توجه به خطرات سمیت سلنیوم برای انسان، قبل از هرگونه برنامه‌ای جهت غنی‌سازی محصولات می‌بایست میزان مصرف سلنیوم توسط افراد و هم‌چنین مقادیر این عنصر در خاک‌های مناطق مختلف کشور مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته و سپس در مورد غنی‌سازی این عنصر تصمیم‌گیری شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Selenium Enrichment of Crops and Its Effect on Plant Physiology

نویسنده [English]

  • Kamran Ghasemi
Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari
چکیده [English]

The importance of selenium to human health is generally known. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO), an adult need about 50 µg Se per day. Unfortunately, most crops are poor with Se content that shed light on necessity of selenium enrichment of crops. Among vegetable crops, garlic and broccoli are considered as an excellent Se accumulator. Substitution of sulfuric amino acids by selenium amino acids (like: selenomethionine and selenocysteine) can disrupt biochemical reactions. High Se resistant plants can enter Se to non-protein amino acid compounds. Although the toxicity of Se in extra concentration for plants is clear, positive effects of low Se concentration on plant protection against abiotic stress, reactive oxygen species and activation of oxidative stress ameliorating systems have been reported. In human, the line between Se deficiency and toxicity is thin related to chemical form of Se. As a result of Se toxicity risk for human, before any crop enrichment plan, the average Se intake by individuals and Se content of soil must be carefully premeditated in different regions of the country.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Selenat
  • Selenit
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Sulfuric amino acids
  • Selenium amino acids

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