بررسی رشد و فنولوژی محصول اصلی و راتون ارقام برنج در سامانه‌های زراعی مختلف

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر پسادکتری، بخش مهندسی ژنتیک و ایمنی زیستی، پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، کرج، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اراک، اراک، ایران

4 استادیار گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این آزمایش با هدف ارزیابی فنولوژی رشد محصول اصلی و راتون برنج در سامانه‌های زراعی، به‌صورت کرت‌های‌ خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی واقع در شهرستان نکا طی سال‌های 1390 و 1391 اجرا شد. نظام‌های کاشت رایج، بهبودیافته و فشرده[1] به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و ارقام سنگ طارم، طارم هاشمی، ندا و شیرودی به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که در نظام کاشت رایج دوره رشد طولانی‌تر بوده و تأخیر در وارد شدن به مرحله زایشی به کاهش عملکرد شلتوک محصول اصلی و راتون منجر شد. در نظام کاشت فشرده ایجاد شرایط بهینه رشد باعث افزایش عملکرد شد. بیش‌ترین عملکرد شلتوک محصول اصلی برای دو رقم ندا و شیرودی تولید شد. عملکرد شلتوک راتون رقم طارم هاشمی به‌میزان 53/7 درصد بیش‌تر از رقم سنگ طارم بود. حداکثر عملکرد شلتوک محصول اصلی در اثر متقابل نظام کاشت فشرده و رقم ندا حاصل شد. بیش‌ترین شاخص برداشت محصول اصلی در اثر متقابل بین نظام کاشت فشرده و رقم شیرودی (12/57 درصد) به‌دست آمد. بالاترین شاخص برداشت راتون نیز در اثر متقابل دو نظام کاشت فشرده و بهبودیافته برای رقم طارم هاشمی مشاهده شد. بنابراین، کاشت ارقام برنج در نظام کاشت فشرده سودمندی بالاتری نسبت به نظام کاشت بهبودیافته و رایج داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Growth and Phenology of Main Crop and Ratoon of Rice Cultivars in Differents Cropping Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Salman Dastan 1
  • Ghorban Noormohamadi 2
  • Hamid Madani 3
  • Mahbobeh Ebrahimi 4
  • Esmail Yasari 4
1 Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Department of Genetic Engineering and Biosafety, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associated Professor, Department of Agronomy, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was carried out with aim of evaluation of phenological traits of main crop and ratoon of rice in cropping system, as split plot in randomized complete blocks design with four replications at Neka, Mazandaran, Iran in 2011 and 2012. Planting systems were chosen as main plots (Conventional, Improved and SRI or System of Rice Intensification) and rice cultivars as sub plots (Sang Tarom, Tarom Hashemi, Neda and Shiroodi). The results showed that in conventional system the growth stage was longer and delay to enter there productive phase led to reduction of paddy yeild of main crop and ratoon. In SRI,create optimal conditions for growth cause to increase yield. The most paddy yield of main crop was produced for Neda and Shiroodi cultivars. Paddy yield of ratoon for Tarom Hashemi cultivar was 7.53 % more than Sang Tarom cultivar. The maximum paddy yield of main crop was obtained at interaction of SRI and Neda cultivar. The most harvest index of main crop was achieved at interaction of SRI and Shiroodi cultivar. The highest harvest index of ratoon crop was observed at interaction of SRI and improved systems for Tarom Hashemi cultivar. Therfore, rice cultivars planting in SRI had the higher efficiencythan improved and conventional systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Harvest index
  • Planting system
  • Rice

کوچکی، ع. و سرمدنیا، غ. ح. 1384. فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی. ترجمه. انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد. 400 صفحه.

امیری لاریجانی، ب.، طهماسبی سروستانی، ز.، نعمت‌زاده، ق.، امیری، ا. و اصفهانی، م. 1390. شبیه‌سازی مراحل فنولوژیک و طول دوره رشد سه رقم برنج در سنین مختلف گیاهچه با استفاده از مدل ORYZA2000. مجله علوم گیاهان زراعی. 13(3): 466-480.

 

Adusumilli, R. and Laxmi, S. B. 2011. Potential of the system of rice intensification for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India. Paddy and Water Environment, 9: 89-97.

Amiri Larijani, B. 2009. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Islamic Republic of Iran in 2008. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Haraz Extension and Technology Development Center, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. 7 p.http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/iran/index.html

Amiri Larijani, B. 2008. Report on System of Rice Intensification in Iran, 2007. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Haraz Extension and Technology Development Center, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. 4 p. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/iran/index.html

Anas, I., Rupela, O. P., Thiyagarajan, T. M. and Uphoff, N. 2011. A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial organisms in rice soil rhizospheres. Paddy and Water Environment, 9 (1): 53-64.

Baloch, A. W., Soomro, A. M., Javed, M. A., Ahmed, M., Bughio, H. R., Bughio, M. S. and Mastoi, N. N. 2002. Optimum plant density for high yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1 (1): 25-27.

Farooq, M., Kobayashi, N., Wahid, A., Ito, O. and Basra, S. M. A. 2009. Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Advances in Agronomy, 101: 351-388.

Gonzalez, F. G., Slafer, G. A. and Miralles, D. J. 2002. Verbalization and photoperiod response in wheat pre-flowering reproductive phases. Field Crops Research, 74: 183-195.

Hameed, K. A., Mosa, A. K. J. and Jabe, F. A. 2011a. Irrigation water reduction using System of Rice Intensification compared with conventional cultivation methods in Iraq. Paddy and Water Environment, 9: 121-127.

Hameed, K. A., Jaber, F. A., Hadi, A. Y., Elewi, J. A. and Uphoff, N. 2011b. Application of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods on productivity of Jasmine rice variety in southern Iraq. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7 (3): 474-481.

Islam, M. S., Peng, S., Visperas, R., Ereful, N., Bhuiya, M. S. U. and Julfiquar, A. W. 2007. Lodging-related morphological traits of hybrid rice in a tropical irrigated ecosystem. Field Crops Research, 101: 240-248.

Itoh, J. I., Nonomura, K. I., Ikeda, K., Yamaki, Sh., Inukai, Y., Yamagishi, H., Kitano, H. and Nagato,Y. 2005. Rice Plant Development: from Zygote to Spikelet. Plant and Cell Physiology, 46 (1): 23-47.

Khanal, R. R. 2005. Phyllochron and leaf development in field grown rice genotypes under varying thermal environments of a high altitude cropping system. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Zu Bonn, Germany, 53 p.

Kotera, A., Nawata, E., Chuong, P., Giao, N. N. and Sakuratani, T. 2004. A model for phonological development of Vietnamese rice influenced by transplanting shock. Plant Production Science, 7: 62-69.

Krishna, A., Biradarpatil, N. K., Manjappa, K. and Channappagoudar, B. B. 2008. Evaluation of system of rice intensification cultivation, seedling age and spacing on seed yield and quality in Samba Masuhri (BPT-5204) rice.Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21: 20-25.

Patel, J. R. 1999. Response of rice (Oryza sativa) to time of transplanting, spacing and age of seedlings. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 44: 344-346.

Randriamibarison, R. P. 2002. Research results on biological nitrogen fixation with System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Proceedings of an International Conference on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) held in Sanya, China.

Randriamiharisoa, R., Barison, J. and Uphoff, N. 2006. Soil biological contributions to the system of rice intensification. Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems, 113: 409-424.

Reddy, K. S. and Reddy, B. B. 1992. Effect of transplanting time, plant density and seedling age of growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 37 (1): 18-24.

Sasaki, R. 2004. Characteristic and seedling establishment of rice nursling seedling. Journal of Agriculture Research (Japan), 38 (1): 7-13.

Sharif, A. 2011. Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy and Water Environment, 9: 111-119.

Stoop, W. A. 2005. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Results from exploratory field research in livery coast research needs and prospects for adaptation to diver's production systems of resource-poor farmers. West African Rice Development Association (WARDA).

Streck, N. A., Weiss, A., Xue, Q. and Baenziger, P. S. 2003. Improving predictions of developmental stages in winter wheat: a modified Wang and Engel model. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 115: 139-150.

Styger, E. 2009. System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Community based evaluation in Goundam and Dire Circles, Timbuktu. Mali, 2008/2009.

Styger, E., Aboubacrine, G., Attaher, M. A. and Uphoff, N. 2011. The system of rice intensification as a sustainable agricultural innovation: introducing, adapting and scaling up a system of rice intensification practices in the Timbuktu region of Mali. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9 (1): 67-75.

Thakur, A. K., Uphoff, N. and Antony, E. 2010a. An assess­ment of physiological effects of system of rice inten­sification (SRI) practices compared to recommend rice cultivated practices in India. In: Experimental Agriculture, 46: 77-98.

Thakur, A. K., Rath, S., Roychowdhury, S. and Uphoff, N. 2010b. Comparative performance of rice with system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional management using different plant spacing. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 196: 146-159.

Thakur, A. K., Rath, S., Patil, D. U. and Kumar, A. 2011. Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy and Water Environment, 9: 13-24.

Thomas, V. and Ramzi, A. M. 2011. SRI contributions to rice production dealing with water management constraints in northeastern Afghanistan. Paddy and Water Environment, 9: 101-109.

Tuchman, M. 2012. Proc Document by Example Using SAS. SAS Institute Inc. SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina, USA, 27513: 312 p.

Uphoff, N. 2006. Increasing water saving while rising rice yields with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). 2nd International Rice Congress, New Delhi, October 9-13, Panel on Water Productivity and Reuse, 33 p.

Uphoff, N. 2007. Agroecological alternatives: Capitalising on existing genetic potentials. Journal of Development Studies, 43: 218-236.

Veeramani, P., Durai Singh, R. and Subrahmaniyan, K. 2012.  Study of phyllochron System of Rice Intensification (SRI) technique. Agricultural Science Research Journal, 2 (6): 329-334.

Vijayakumar, M., Ramesh, S., Chandrasekaran, B. and Thiyagarajan, T. M. 2006a. Effect of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices on yield attributes, yield and water productivity of rice (Oryza Sativa). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2 (6): 236-242.

Vijayakumar, M., Ramesh, S., Prabhakaran, N. K., Subbian, P. and Chandrasekaran, B. 2006b. Influence of system of rice intensification (SRI) practices on growth characters, days to flowering, growth analysis and labour productivity of rice. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 984-989.

Wang, S., Cao, W., Jiang, D., Tai, D. B. and Zhu, Y. 2002. Physiological characteristics and high-yield techniques with SRI rice, in N. Uphoff et al., (eds.), Assessments of the System of Rice Intensification, 116-124 (http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/proc1/sri-27.pdf).

Yin, X., Struik, P. C., Tang, J., Qi, Ch. and Liu, T. 2005. Model analysis of flowering phonology in recombinant inbred lines of barley. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56 (413): 959-965.

Zbu, D., Bibua, C. S., Yaping, Z. and Xiaqing, L. 2002. Tillering patterns and contribution of tillers to grain yield with Hybrid rice and wide spacing. Proceeding of an International Conference on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) held in Sanya, China.

Zhao, L., Wu, L., Li, Y., Animesh, S., Zhu, D. and Uphoff, N. 2010. Comparisons of yield, water use efficiency, and soil microbial biomass as affected by the System of Rice Intensification. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41 (1): 1-12.