اثر مالچ و فواصل آبیاری بر ویژگی‌های مورفو- فیزیولوژیکی زیتون رقم سویلانا در شرایط مزرعه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی اثر فواصل آبیاری و مالچ بر ویژگی‌های مورفو- فیزیولوژیکی درختان 11 ساله زیتون رقم سویلانا در شرایط مزرعه در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون دالاهو استان کرمانشاه در سال زراعی1394‌ اجرا گردید. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل فواصل آبیاری (سه، شش و ده روزه) بود و فاکتور دوم مالچ (پلی‌اتیلن، کاه و کلش گندم و بدون مالچ) بود. به‌منظور تعیین اثر فواصل آبیاری و مالچ بر زیتون رقم سویلانا در شرایط مزرعه برخی صفات ازجمله رشد و قطر شاخه سال جاری، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، نشت یونی، کلروفیل کل، پرولین آزاد برگ، قندهای محلول، میزان فنل و مالون‌دی‌آلدهید ثبت گردید. نتایج نشان داد که، بین تیمار‌های مختلف دور آبیاری و مالچ از نظر صفات اندازه‌گیری شده تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت. بیش‌ترین میزان رشد و قطر شاخه مربوط به تیمار مالچ کاه وکلش و پلی‌اتیلن و دور آبیاری سه روزه بود. با افزایش فواصل آبیاری محتوای نسبی آب برگ و میزان کلروفیل کاهش و با کاربرد مالچ کاه وکلش و پلی‌اتیلن میزان آن‌ها در مقایسه با شرایط بدون مالچ افزایش یافت. از طرفی با افزایش دور آبیاری نشت یونی، پرولین آزاد برگ، قندهای محلول، میزان فنل و مالون‌دی‌آلدهید افزایش نشان داد درحالی‌که مالچ باعث کاهش این صفات گردید. بر این اساس می‌توان با استفاده از مالچ‌های کاه و کلش و نیز پلی‌اتیلن دور آبیاری را بدون صدمه به درختان زیتون افزایش داد و از این طریق در مصرف آب آبیاری باغات زیتون صرفه‌جویی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Mulch and Irrigation Interval on Morph-physiological Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea cv. Sevillana) under Field Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmatollah Gholami 1
  • Issa Arji 2
1 Assistant Professor, Agronomy-Horticultural Sciences Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor , Agronomy-Horticultural Sciences Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation interval and mulch on morph-physiological characteristics of 11-years old olive trees, Sevillana cultivar. A factorial experiment was carried out in Dallaho Olive Research Station in Sarpole-Zahab. Field experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors (irrigation interval and mulch) was conducted in 2015. Irrigation treatments period for experiment were 3, 6 and 10 days interval and mulch treatments for experiment were control (no mulch), polyethylene and wheat straw. Some vegetative growth traits including current-season shoot growth and diameter and certain physiological characteristics consisting of leaf relative water content (RWC), ionic leakage, total chlorophyll, proline content, total soluble sugars, phenol and malondialdehyde were measured at the end of growth season. Results showed that mulch and interval of irrigation treatments caused significant differences in morph-physiological traits so that mulch and 3 days interval irrigation treatments increased current-season shoot growth and diameter of olive trees. Leaf RWC and total chlorophyll was reduced under drought stress. The usage of mulch resulted in higher leaf RWC and total chlorophyll compared to the drought stress conditions. Application of mulch improved growth characteristics of olive under drought stress and helped to save water in olive orchards.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Polyethylene
  • wheat straw
  • Leaf relative water content
  • Proline
بیناباجی، م. و مختاری، ع. 1379. استفاده از تکنیک بقاء حیات گیاهان برای کشت و استقرار نهال­های جوان، دومین کنگره علوم باغبانی ایران،  ص437.
حسینی، آ. و نعمتی، ح. 1393. اثر فاصله آبیاری بر خصوصیات رشدی، عملکرد کمی و کیفی گوجه فرنگی در شرایط کاربرد و عدم کاربرد مالچ پلاستیکی. نشریه بوم‌شناسی کشاورزی، 6 (3):560-552.
غلامی، ر. 1387. بررسی و مطالعه اثرات تنش خشکی روی خصوصیات رویشی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر بومی زیتون در استان کرمانشاه. گزارش نهایی. مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان کرمانشاه. 31 صفحه.
غلامی، ر. 1395. اثر کم آبیاری بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی، بیوشیمیایی، مورفولوژیکی وعملکرد شش رقم تجاری زیتون. رساله دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا همدان،170 صفحه.
غلامی، ر.، ارزانی، ک. و ارجی، ع. 1391. اثر پاکلوبوترازول و مقادیر مختلف آب آبیاری بر رشد رویشی نهال­های جوان زیتون رقم مانزانیلا. مجله علوم باغبانی مشهد، 26 (4):402-408.
فرشچی، ع.، شریعتی، م.، جاروالهی، ر.، قائمی، م.، شهابی فر، م. و تولایی، م. 1376. برآورد آب مورد نیاز گیاهان عمده زراعی و باغی کشور. جلد دوم. نشر آموزش کشاورزی. 629 صفحه.
Arzani, K. and Arji, I. 2000. The effect of water stress and deficit irrigation on young potted olive cv. Local-Roghani Roodbar. Acta Horticulturae, 537: 879-885.
Ashrafuzzaman, M., Halim, M. A., Ismail, M. R., Shahidullah, S. M. and Hossain, M. A. 2011. Effect of plastic mulch on growth and yield of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 54 (2): 321-330.
Bacelar, E. A., Santos, D. L., Moutinho- Pereira, J. M., Goncalves, B. C., Ferreira, H. F. and Correia, C. M. 2006. Immediate responses and adaptative strategies of three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes: Changes on structure and chemical composition of foliage and oxidative damage. Plant Science, 170: 596-605.
Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P. and Teare, I. D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207.
Boughalleb, F. and Mhamdi, M. 2011. Possible involvement of proline and the antioxidant defense systems in drought tolerance of three olive cultivars grown under increasing water deficit regimes. Agricultural Journal, 6 (6): 371-391.
Bunna, S., Sinath, P., Makara, O., Mitchell, J. and Fukai, S. 2011. Effects of straw mulch on mungbean yield in rice fields with strongly compacted soils. Field Crops Research, 124: 295-301.
Buysse, J. and Merckx, R. 1993. An improved colorimetric method to quantify sugar content of plant tissue. Journal of Experimental Botany, 44 (10): 1627-1629.
Calatrava, J. and Franco, J. A. 2011. Using pruning residues as mulch: Analysis of its adoption and process of diffusion in Southern Spain olive orchards. Journal of Environmental Management, 92 (3): 620-629.
Camposeo, S. and Vivaldi, G. A. 2011. Short-term effects of de-oiled olive pomace mulching application on a young super high-density olive orchard. Scientia Horticulturae, 129: 613-621.
Chai, Q., Gan, Y., Zhao, C., Xu, H. L., Waskom, R. M., Niu, Y. and Siddique, K. H. M. 2015. Regulated deficit irrigation for crop production under drought stress. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 21p.
Chartzoulakis, K. and Bertaki, M. 2015. Sustainable water management in agriculture under climate change. Agriculture and Agricultural Science, Procedia, 4: 88-98.
Chartzoulakis, K., Patakas, A. and Bosabalidis, A. M. 1999. Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 42: 113-120.
D Andria, R., Morelli, G., Patiumi, M. and Fontanazza, G. 2000. Irrigation regime affects yield and oil quality of olive trees. 4th International Symposium on Olive Growing, Valenzano (Bari) Italy, p 136.
Dere, S., Gunes, T. and Sivaci, R. 1998. Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turkish Journal of Botany, 22: 13-17.
Doupis, G., Bertaki, M., Psarras, G., Kasapakis, I. and Chartzoulakis, K. 2013. Water relations, physiological behavior and antioxidant defence mechanism of olive plants subjected to different irrigation regimes. Scientia Horticulturae, 153: 150-156.
Elhami, B., Zaare-Nahandi, F. and Jahanbakhsh-Godehkahriz, S. 2015. Effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on physiological and biological responses of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Conservolia) under water stress. International Journal of Biosciences, 6 (4): 148-156.
FAO. 2008. http//www.fao.org/nr/water/ETo.html. Accessed 27 November, 2013.
Fernandez, J. E., Moreno, F., Cabrera, F., Arrue, J. L. and Martin-Aranda, J. 1991. Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant and Soil, 133: 239-251.
Gholami, R., Arzani, K. and Arji, I. 2004. Effect of different irrigation amounts on vegetative growth of young potted olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. Manzanillo. 5th International Symposium on Olive Growing, 27 September-2 October, Izmir, Turkiye. p 210.
Gholami, R., Arzani, K. and Arji, I. 2004. Effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on vegetative growth and performance of young olive plants CV. Manzanillo. 5th International Symposium on Olive Growing, 27 September-2 October, Izmir, Turkiye. P. 9.
Girona, J., Luna, M., Arbones, A., Mata, M., Rufat, J. and Marsal, J. 2000.Young olive trees cv. Arbequina response to different water supplies. Water function determination. 4th International Symposium on Olive Growing, Valenzano (Bari) Italy, P136.
Goldhamer, D. A., Dunai, J. and Ferguson, L. F. 1993. Water use requirements of Manzanillo olives response to sustained deficit irrigation. Acta Horticulturae, 335: 365-371.
Greenly, K. M. and Rakow, D. A. 1995. The effect of wood mulch type and depth on weed and tree growth and certain soil parameters. Journal of Arboriculture, 21 (5): 225-232.
Gucci, R., Lombardini, L. and Tattini, M. 1997. Analysis of leaf water relations in leaves of two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity. Tree Physiology, 17: 13-21.
I.O.O.C. 2002a. Methodology for the primary characterization of olive varieties. Project on conservation, characterization, collection of Genetic Resources in olive. International Olive Oil Council. 15p.
Jalota, S. K. 1993. Evaporation Through a soil mulch in relation to characteristics and evaporativity. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 31: 131-6.
Jiang, Y. and Hung, B. 2001. Drought and heat stress injury to two cool-season turfgrasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science, 41: 436-442.
Korkmaz, A. M. U. and Demirkiran, A. R. 2007. Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling-induced damage in muskmelon plants. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 87: 581-585.
Machado, M., Felizardo, C., Fernandes-Silva, A. A., Nunes, F. M. and Barros, A. 2013. Polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity during ripening of olive cv.Cobrançosa under different irrigation regimes. Food Research International, 51: 412-421.
Michelakis, N., Vouyoukalou, E. and Clapaki, G. 1995. Plant growth and yield response of the olive tree cv. Kalamon for different levels of soil water potential and methods of irrigation. Horticultural Science, 9: 136-139.
Motilva, M. J., Tovar, M. J., Romero, M. P., Alegre, S. and Girona, J. 2000.Influence of regulated deficit irrigation strategies applied to olive trees (Arbequina cultivar) on oil yield and oil composition during the fruit ripening period. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 80 (14): 2037-2043.
Nuzzo, V., Xiloyannis, C., Dichio, B., Montonaro, G. and Celano, G. 1997. Growth and yield in irrigated and nonirrigated olive trees cv. Coratina. Acta Horticulturae, 449: 74-82.
Petridis, A., Therios, I., Samouris, G., Koundouras, S. and Giannakoula, A. 2012. Effect of water deficit on leaf phenolic composition, gas exchange, oxidative damage and antioxidant activity of four Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 60: 1-11.
Pinheiro, C., Passarinho, J. A. and Ricardo, C. P. 2004. Effect of drought and rewatering on metabolism of Lupinus albus organs. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161: 1203-1210.
Rosecrance, R. C., Krueger, W. H., Milliron, L., Bloese, J., Garcia, C. and Mori, B. 2015. Moderate regulated deficit irrigation can increase olive oil yields and decrease tree growth in super high density Arbequina olive orchards. Scientia Horticulturae, 190: 75-82.
Roussos, P. A., Denaxa, N. K., Damvakaris, T., Stournaras, V. and Argyrokastritis, I. 2010. Effect of alleviating products with different mode of action on physiology and yield of olive under drought. Scientia Horticulturae, 125: 700-711.
Scopel, E., Da Silva, F. A. M., Corbeels, M., Affholder, F. and Maraux, F. 2004. Modelling crop residue mulching effects on water use and production of maize under semi-arid and humid tropical conditions. Agronomie, 24: 383-395.
Shahriari, S. 2011. The study on the effect of irrigation levels and mulch application on growth indices and essential oil content of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Planta Medicine, 18: 77-88.
Singer, C. K. and Martin, C. A. 2009. Effect of landscape mulches and drip irrigation on transplant establishment and growth of three North American desert native plants. Journal of Environmental and Horticulture, 27 (3): 166-170.
Singleton, V. L. and Rossi, J. R. J. A. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungastic reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16: 144-158.
Srivatata, B. K., Sharma, A. K., Singh, A. K. and Pandey, V. B. 1984. Effects of organic mulches and irrigation levels on soil temperature water economy and yield of summe tomato. Vegetable Science, 11: 1-9.
Steinmetz, Z., Wollmann, C., Schaefer, M., Buchmann, C., David, J., Troger, J., Munoz, K., Fror, O. and Schaumann, G. L. 2016. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation? Science of the Total Environment, 550: 690-705.
Stewart, R. R. C. and Bewley, J. D. 1980. Lipid peroxidation ­associated with accelerated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiology, 65: 245-248.
Wang, C., Wang, H., Zhao, X., Chen, B. and Wang, F. 2015. Mulching affects photosynthetic and chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics during stage III of peach fruit growth on the rain-fed semiarid Loess Plateau of China. Scientia Horticulturae, 194: 246-254.